Laying of the foundation stone.
The celebration of the Fourth of July, and the ceremonies attending
the commencement of the Baltimore and Ohio Railroad, brought to
town a great concourse of strangers a day or two before the celebration.
On the afternoon and evening immediately preceding, all the roads
to town were thronged with passengers, while in the city itself,
the lively and incessant crowd, in Baltimore street; the movement,
of various cars, banners, and other decorations of the Trades,
to their several points of destination; the erection of scaffolds,
and the removal of window-sashes; gave so many "notes of
preparation" for the ensuing fete. Fortunately, the morning
of the Fourth rose, not only bright but cool, to the great comfort
of the immense throng of spectators that, from a very early hour,
filled every window in Baltimore street, and the pavement below,
from beyond Bond street on the east, far west on Baltimore street
extended, a distance of about two miles. What the number were,
we have no means of ascertaining; fifty thousand spectators, at
least, must have been present, among the whole of which, we are
happy to say, we witnessed a quietness and good order seldom seen
in so immense a multitude. With the exception of one or two lost
children, we know of no accident that disturbed the festivity
of the scene in the city.
The Procession left Bond street a little before eight o'clock,
and moved up Baltimore street in the order previously arranged
and published. The "good ship," the Union, completely
rigged on Fell's Point, was on the extreme left of the line, and
as the various Bands of Music, Trades, and other bodies in the
procession, passed before it, it was evident, from their greetings,
that they regarded this combined symbol of our confederacy and
navy with especial approbation. The thick of the crowd, too, was
immediately around her. About ten o'clock, the procession reached
the spot on which the Foundation Stone of the Railroad was to
be placed, in a field two miles and a quarter from town, south
of the Frederick Turnpike road, and near Carroll's upper mills,
on Gwynn's Falls. Through the middle of this field runs, from
north to south, a ridge, of an elevation of perhaps thirty feet;
in the centre, and at the summit of which, was erected a pavilion
for the reception of Charles Carroll of Carrollton, the President
and Directors of the Railroad Company, the Engineers, the Mayor
and City Council, and the orator of the day. Among the guests
in the pavilion were also the Speaker of the House of Representatives
of the United States, Gov. Coles of Indiana, the members of Congress
and the Legislature, the Cincinnati and Revolutionary Soldiers,
Col. Grenier, and Gen. Devereux. On either side of the pavilion,
and along the line of the ridge, was ranged the cavalry. In front
of it towards the east, and on the brow of this ridge, was the
excavation for the reception of the foundation stone, beneath
which, and parallel with the ridge, lay a long and level plain,
in which the procession formed on its arrival, facing towards
the pavilion. The cars were drawn up in a body on the left, and
inclining towards the rear of the pavilion. The Masonic bodies
formed a large hollow square round the First Stone. The spectacle
presented from the pavilion was gay and splendid in a very high
Laying of the foundation stone.Mr. Morris' speech.
The ceremonies were commenced by a Prayer by the REV.
DR. WYATT, Masonic
Grand Chaplain, the vast audience uncovering their heads; when
Mr. Upton S. Heath after an eloquent preface, read the Declaration
of Independence. The Carrollton March, composed by Mr. Clifton,
being then performed, Mr. JOHN B. MORRIS, (one of the Railroad committee of arrangements,)
delivered the following Address from the President and Directors
of the Company:
"Fellow-Citizens.The occasion which has assembled
us, is one of great and momentous interest. We have met to celebrate
the laying of the first stone of the Baltimore and Ohio Railroad:
and if there be any thing which could render the day we have chosen
more interesting in our eyes, than it already seems, it is that
we now commence the construction of a work which is to raise our
native city to that rank which the advantages of her situation
and the enterprise of her citizens entitle her to hold. The result
of our labors will be felt, not only by ourselves, but also by
posterity,not only by Baltimore, but also by Maryland and
by the United States. We are about opening the channel through
which the commerce of the mighty country beyond the Alleghany
must seek the oceanwe are about affording facilities of
intercourse between the East and the West, which will bind the
one more closely to the other, beyond the power of an increased
population or sectional differences to disunite. We are in fact
commencing a new era in our history; for there are none present
who even doubt the beneficial influence which the intended Road
will have in promoting the Agriculture, Manufactures and Inland
Commerce of our country. It is but a few years since the introduction
of Steamboats effected powerful changes, and made those neighbors,
who were before far distant from each other. Of a similar and
equally important effect will be in the Baltimore and Ohio Railroad.
While the one will have stemmed the torrent of the Mississippi,
the other will have surmounted and reduced the heights of the
Alleghany: and those obstacles, before considered insuperable,
will have ceased to be so, as the ingenuity and industry of man
shall have been exerted to overcome them.
Fully impressed with the magnitude of the undertaking committed
to their charge, the Board of Directors have used every means
to insure success. The best talent of the country is employed
in their service:the General Government has lent its officers
to assist in what is justly considered a work of National importance:much
valuable information has been acquired, and with abundant resources
at their command, the Board of' Directors find themselves within
little inure than a year after the incorporation of the Company,
fully prepared to commence the construction of the Great Road.
It is not in mortals to command success; but if a determination
to yield to no obstacle which human exertion can overcome an enthusiastic
devotion to the cause; a firm belief that the completion of the
magnificent work will confer the most important benefits upon
our country ; and a thorough conviction that it is practicable;if
all these, urging to action, can ensure successsuccess shall
This day fifty-two years since, two millions of people, (the
population of the Provinces of Great Britain,) proclaimed themselves
Independent States, and commenced the task of self-government.
Our native city was then an inconsiderable village, with few and
difficult means of' communication with the interior, and with
a scanty and slowly increasing commerce. The inhabitants of these,
States now number ten millions! and Baltimore has increased in
her full proportion of population. Wide avenues now radiate in
every direction through the surrounding country:she has
risen to the rank of the third city of the Union, and there are
but few sections of the world where her commercial enterprise
has not made her known. Fifty-two years since, he, who is this
day to lay the first stone of the Great Road, was one among
a hand of fearless and noble spirits who resolved and declared
that freedom which has been transmitted unimpaired to us.
Mr. Morris' speech.Address to Mr. Carroll.
The existence which he contributed to give to the United States
on the Fourth of July, 1776, on the Fourth of July, 1828, he perpetuates.
Ninety-one summers have passed over him. Those who stood with
him in the Hall of Independence, have left him solitary upon earth'the
father of his country.' In the full possession of his powers;
with his feelings and affections still buoyant and warm, he now
declares that the proudest act of his life and the most important
in its consequences to his country, was the signature of Independence;
the next the laying of the First Stone of the work which is to
perpetuate the union of the American States; to make the East
and West as one household in the facilities of intercourse, and
the feelings of mutual affection. Long may he live, cherished
and beloved by his country, a noble relic of the past, a bright
example of the present time."
On the conclusion of the address, two boys dressed as Mercuries,
advanced to the canopy, and prayed that the Printers might be
furnished with a copy of the remarks and address just delivered,
that they might be printed and distributed to the people.
The Deputation from the Blacksmiths' Association next advancing,
presented Mr. Carroll the Pick, Spade, Stone-Hammer and Trowel,
prepared by them for the occasion, and made the following address:
Venerated Sir:As the representative of the Association
of Black and Whitesmiths, I am directed to present to you these
implements made and borne to this place by freemen, consisting
of a Pick to break the soil, the Spade to remove it, the Hammer
to break off rough corners, and the Trowel to lay the cement which
is to unite the East to the West, for the commencement of this
great work, which will commemorate an epoch in the history of
the internal improvement of our beloved country, and that, too,
on this illustrious day, which is celebrated as the day that tried
the souls of menthe day that gave birth to a nation of freementhe
day, venerated sir, with which you are so conspicuously identifiedthe
day that shall be the polar star to future ages, advertising them,
that men dare declare themselves a free and sovereign people,
that republics can exist, that neither require the royal diadem
nor military rule to direct the great helm of State in safety.
And now, sir, that the present age may bless the men that touched
the spring that put in motion this great national work, and that
future ages may bless the memory of our beloved Charles Carroll
of Carrollton, is the prayer of those freemen that surround you."
Laying the first stone.The Masonic order.
The Deputation from the Stone Cutters now came forward, and
the car containing the Foundation Stone was driven to the spot.
While the stone was preparing, Mr. Carroll, accompanied by the
Grand Marshal of the day, and by Mr. John B. Morris, and bearing
in his hand the spade just presented, descended from the pavilion
and advanced to the spot selected for the reception of the Foundation
Stone, in order to strike the spade into the ground. He walked
with a firm step, and used the instrument with a steady hand,
verifying, the prediction of our correspondent, in the song published
on the morning of the Fourth:
"The hand that held the pen,
Never falters, but again
Is employed with the spade, to assist his fellow-men.
The Stone was then dexterously removed from the wagon in which
it had been to the ground, and placed in its bed. The Grand Master
of Maryland then remarked, that before applying the test of his
instruments to the Stone, for the purpose of ascertaining its
correctness, with the assistance of the Grand Masters of the States
of Pennsylvania and Virginia, it might not be amiss to add one
to the numerous congratulations then expressed, that Maryland
had at last determined to engage in honorable competition with
her sister States, in the great work of Internal Improvement.
He hailed the presence of the Grand Masters of these States as
a propitious omen. On the one hand was Pennsylvania, the first
to penetrate the defiles of her mountains with her roads, and
she had been ever since employed with ceaseless assiduity, in
further developing the resources of her domestic trade. On the
other hand was Virginia, who had been for years studiously engaged
in creating and preserving a Board, with competent funds, for
the promotion of the same great end, manfully struggling against
those difficulties which even her energy had hitherto been insufficient
to surmount, and therefore doubtless awaiting anxiously the result
of our experiment, in order to avail herself of this mode of extended
communication. It was only, he said, to notice the countenances
of the representatives of a numerous fraternity in these two powerful
and neighboring States, and to express in the name of the body
whom be represented, their thanks for the kind feelings which
had prompted the acceptance of the invitation to join in the ceremonies
of the day,that he had allowed himself to interrupt the
usual order with a single remark.
The Grand Master, attended by the P. G. Chaplain of Maryland,
and by the Grand Masters of Pennsylvania and Virginia, then applied
his instruments to the Stone, and after handing them for the same
purpose to the other Grand Masters and receiving their favorable
report, pronounced it to be "well formed, true and trusty."
The Grand Chaplain invoked the benediction upon the success of
the enterprise, the prosperity of the City, and the future life
of the venerable man who had assisted in laying the Stone. The
ceremony was concluded in the usual manner by pouring wine and
oil, and scattering corn, upon the Stone, with a correspondent
invocation and response, followed by the grand Masonic honors.
The following is the Inscription: "This Stone,
presented by the Stone Cutters of Baltimore, in commemoration
of the commencement of the Baltimore and Ohio Railroad, was
here placed on the Fourth of July, 1828, by the Grand Lodge
of Maryland, assisted by Charles Carroll of Carrollton,
the last surviving Signer of the Declaration of American Independence,
and under the direction of the president and Directors of the
Railroad Company." On each side of the Stone was this
inscription:" FIRST STONE
OF THE BALTIMORE
AND OHIO RAILROAD."
Papers deposited in the stone.
In the cavity of the Stone was deposited a glass cylinder,
hermetrically sealed containing a copy of the Charter of the Company,
as granted and confirmed by the States of Maryland, Virginia and
Pennsylvania,and the newspapers of the day, together with
a scroll containing these words:
"This Stone is deposited in commemoration of the commencement
of the Baltimore and Ohio Railroad. A work of deep and
vital interest to the American people. Its accomplishment
will confer the most important benefits upon this nation, by facilitating
its commerce, diffusing and extending its social intercourse,
and perpetuating the happy Union of these, Confederated States.
The first general meeting of the citizens of Baltimore to confer
upon the adoption of proper measures for undertaking this magnificent
work, was on the second day of' February 1827. An act of Incorporation,
by the State of Maryland, was granted February 28th, 1827 and
was confirmed by the State of Virginia, March 8th, 1827. Stock
was subscribed to provide funds for its execution, April 1st,
1827. The first Board of Directors was elected April 23, 1827.
The Company was organized 24th April, 1827. An examination
of the country was commenced under the direction of Lieutenant
Colonel Stephen H. Long and Captain William G. McNeill, United
States Topographical Engineers, and William Howard, United States
Civil Engineer, assisted by Lieutenants Barney, Trimble, and Dillahunty,
of the United States Artillery, and Mr.Harrison, July 2d, 1827.
The actual surveys to determine the route, were began by the same
officers, with the additional assistance of Lieutenants Cook,
Gwynn, Hazzard, Fessenden and Thompson, and Mr. Guion, November
20th, 1827. The Charter of the Company was confirmed by the State
of Pennsylvania, February 22d 1828. The State of Maryland became
a Stockholder in the Company, by subscribing for half a million
dollars of its stock, March 6th, 1829. And the Construction
of the Road was commenced July 4th, 1828, under the management
of the following named Board of Directors:
Philip Evan Thomas, President,
Charles Carroll of Carrollton,
George Brown, Treasurer,
John D. Morris,
"The Engineers, and Assistant Engineers, in the service
of the Company, are:Philip Evan Thomas, President, Lieutenant
Colonel Stephen Harryman Long, Jonathan Knight, Board of Engineers.
Captain William Gibbs McNeill, U. S. Topographical Engineer.
Lieutenants William Cook, Joshua Barney, Walter Gwynn, Isaac Trimble,
Richard Edward Hazzard, John N. Dillahunty, of the U. S. Artillery.
Casper Willis Wever, Superintendent of Construction."
A National Salute was then fired by the Artillery, stationed
on a neighboring hill to the north.
The Deputation of Hatters then presented a beautiful beaver
hat to Mr. Carroll, and another of like beauty to General Smith,
both made by Mr. Joseph Branson, at the request of the association.
Mr. Branson was attended by Messrs. George Rogers and W. Leaman,
and the Committee of Arrangements. The Weavers and Tailors, likewise
presented to Mr. Carroll a coat made on the way. The Engineers'
Report, bound in the most splendid manner, was then presented
to him by the Book Binders, who, through Mr. J. J. Harrod, made
him an address in the following words:
"Revered Sire and PatriotDo the favor
to accept from the Book Binders, of the City of Baltimore,
this Copy of the Engineers' Report of the Baltimore and Ohio Railroad
Surveys, its it small tribute of their profound respect for your
amiable character and patriotic services.
More than half a century has elapsed since you recorded your
name on the memorable charter of our country's independence: An
instrument which surprised the civilized world by the novelty
of its sublime maxims on the interesting subject of Human Freedom.
And now, this fifty-second Anniversary of American Independence
finds you in the plain, but dignified character of a private citizen,
mingling with our fellow citizens, and by their unanimous wish,
sustaining a conspicuous part in commencing the magnificent enterprise
of 'The Baltimore and Ohio Railroad,' which, when completed,
will, doubtless, materially subserve, to an immense extent, the
commercial interests of this prosperous and spreading empire.
We cannot forbear to unite our voices with those of the great
multitude that surrounds you, in expressing the high sense of
admiration we entertain, whilst contemplating these two acts of
your life; and in invoking for your welfare the perpetual blessings
and protection of an overruling Providence."
A deputation was now received from Capt. Gardner, of the ship
Union, inviting Mr. Carroll and the Directors of the Railroad
Company, to visit the ship. They complied with this request, accompanied
by General Smith, the Grand Marshal and his aids, and partook
of refreshments on board of this miniature vessel. After leaving
her, Mr. Carroll visited the Cars of the different Trades, and
was received and cheered by them with the utmost enthusiasm. During
the whole ceremony, the venerable patriot preserved a vivacity
and spirit remarkable indeed at his advanced age.
The ceremonies on the ground were concluded about twelve o'clock,
and the procession being formed again, returned to town, by the
indicated route, and dismissed in Baltimore street, at half past
The procession, on its return to the city, was headed by two
handsome Cars from the Union Manufacturing Company's Works, which
added greatly to the interest of the occasion. One of these huge
carriages contained sixty, and the other forty-two females, belonging
to the above factory. On the sides of the cars, which were fancifully
decorated by the females themselves, was painted "Union
Factory." Messrs. Joseph White and Richard Partington
rode in the cars as protectors, They subsequently passed through
several of the streets.
Between four and five in the afternoon, the Knights Templar
marched in procession from the Masonic Lodge, to the Globe Inn,
where they dined in their encampment, a handsome pavillion
prepared in the court of that Inn. A number of associations dined
together, with the usual ceremonies observed on these occasions,
and at night a display of Fire Works took place on Federal Hill,
immediately opposite the city. The day concluded with more decorum
and quiet, than we remember to have seen on any like occassion.No
small part of this is due to the happy arrangement, and superintendence
of the Marshals of the day, who have given in the result, the
best and most flattering evidence of their competence to the laborious
and delicate task assigned to them.
The Procession was headed by Captain Cox's troop, the First
Baltimore Hussars. The Pioneers with the implements of labor on
their shoulders, followed next. Then came the Masonic Fraternity,
decorated with the various insignia of their order; the Junior
Lodges in front, and the Grand Lodge of Maryland bringing up the
rear. In the ranks of the Grand Lodge were Officers of the Grand
Lodges of Pennsylvania and Virginia, who visited Baltimore for
the special purpose of assisting in the ceremonies of the day.
The Grand Marshal of the day, Mr. Samuel Sterett, followed, attended
by his aids, Messrs. Henry Thompson, Samuel Moore and John Thomas.
In an elegant landaulet and four, were seated the venerable Charles
Carroll of Carrollton, the only surviving Signer of the
Declaration of Independence, and General Samuel Smith, Senator
of Maryland in Congress. A barouche and four succeeded, in which
were Col. U. S. Heath, the Orator of the day, Mr. William Patterson,
Hon. Andrew Stevenson, Speaker of the House of Representatives
of the United States, and Governor Coles, of Indiana. Two other
barouches followed, in the first of which were seated Col. Greneir,
aid to General La Fafayette at the surrender of Cornwallis, and
General William McDonald; and in the latter, Col. Thomas Tennant
and General Devereux. Then followed, on foot, in double files,
the Directors of the Baltimore and Ohio Rail Road Company; the
Military and Civil Engineers of the Company; the Order of Cincinnati,
and Soldiers of the Revolution. A Band of Music came next; and
then followed, in order, the several Associations, Trades, &c.,
as here described:
The Procession.The Farmers.
Farmers and Planters.At the head of this body,
on horseback, and in double files, were seen twenty-four aged
and respectable Farmers, corresponding with the number of the
States of the Union. One of these carried a banner on which was
inscribed," The wilderness and the solitary place
shall be glad, and the desert shall rejoice and blossom as the
rose." Then followed a Stage or platform, bearing a plough,
guided by Gen. Tobias E. Stansbury, and driven by Mr. George Harryman.
In front the stage was ornamented with two living mulberry trees,
bearing numbers of the cocoon of the silk worm; and in the rear
were seen growing stalks of corn, &c. On the right of the
stage was displayed the Flag of the Union, and on the left a staff
surmounted by a Liberty Cap, on one side of which was the motto,
"E, pluribus unum," and on the other, "Where
Liberty dwells, there is My country." In the centre of
the stage was a banner with this motto," Our swords
are beaten into plough-shares, and our spears into pruning-hooks."
Then followed Colonel Nicholas M. Bosley, the Seedsman, on
horse-back, dressed in homespun. His shoulders were ornamented
with epaulets of the heads of timothy grass and wheat, and from
his shoulders was suspended a bag of grain, which he sowed as
he passed along. In his hand he held a banner with this inscription,"
He who soweth good seed shall reap abundantly." A second
Stage succeeded, on which was a Harrow, held by Mr. John Scott.
In front was a flag with the motto,"Paul may plant,
and Apollos water, but God giveth the increase." A third
Stage followed, containing sheaves of wheat and rye, and farmers
engaged in the business of harvesting. The Farmers on this stage
were Mr. William Jessop, reaper; Mr. Leo Tipton, cradler; and
Mr. Nicholas Gatch, raker and binder. The banner contained the
following motto."Behold the day is come. Put ye
in the sickle and reap, for the harvest is ripe." In
the fourth were seen Messrs. Elias Brown and James Turner, threshing
wheat and rye. At the other end were a wheat fan and a straw cutter,
both of which were kept busily in operation. The winnowers were
Messrs. William Scharf and James W. M'Culloch; the straw cutter
was Mr. Upton Reid; the feeder, Mr. John J. Bayley: and the clearer,
Master John H. Scharf. On the banner was inscribed this motto"He
thresheth in hope, and is a partaker of his hope." Over
the wheat fan was this motto"He will gather the
wheat into his garner, and the chaff he will barn." The
fifth Stage closed the procession of the farmers. On it was a
handsome apple tree, with a living grape-vine growing among its
branches. Under the tree was a fine milch cow, with a person employed
in milking. At one end of the stage was a pen with pigs. Mr.
Noah Underwood was on the stage engaged at the churn. On a banner
over the vine, was this motto"Every man may sit
under his own vine and fig tree, and none shall make him afraid."
Over the cow floated a banner with this motto"A
land flowing with milk and honey." This stage was furnished
and arranged at the sole expense of Mr. Underwood.
Gardeners.This association to the number of sixty
or seventy, was preceded by its banner, containing on one side,
in appropriate device to represent the antiquity of the profession.
The motto was, "God is our trust." On the reverse
was a cornucopia, and the serpent beguiling Eve. The members were
all clothed in white jackets, vests and pantaloons; and each wore
in his breast a bouquet of beautiful flowers. Principal marshal,
The Procession.Millers, Bakers, Victuallers, Tailors,
Millers and Flour Inspectors.At the head of this
association was carried a banner of white silk, containing on
one side a representation of a mill, fall of water, &c. On
the other, the representation of a crane, with two mill-stones
suspended. Motto"The Millers of Maryland."
Each miller wore a silk badge on his vest, with a device of
the tools of his profession, and a sketch of a Railroad. The marshals
and banner-bearer were dressed in white, with blue sashes. The
Cart of the Flour Inspectors came next, in which were the furnace
and branding ironsthe whole overshadowed by a beautiful
oleander still in full bloom. The Inspectors, in drab coats, white
hats, vests and pantaloons brought up the rear, each having his
scoop under his arm. The principal marshals of this body were
David Rickets and R. Purnell. Standard-bearer James Powers, supported
by William Durham and Isaac Walmsley.
Bakers.Two of the oldest bakers of Baltimore,
Messrs. B. Struthoff and John Soper, were in front of this association.
Next came the master bakers, in sections of five, with a sub-martial
on the right of sections.Then followed the banner, borne
by Mr. Geo. Al. Blensineger; it represented a baker in the act
of drawing bread from the oven; motto"Equal rights,
and a persecuted branch; approved Feb. 21, 1828." The
bearer was flanked by the committee of arrangement, wearing blue
sashes, peels, and Railroad badges. A band of music succeeded,
flanked by three loaf-bread and three biscuit bakers, each carrying
a peel painted blue. The journeymen and apprentices followed.
The association was uniformly dressed in white, and numbered from
eighty to one hundred men. The principal marshal was Mr. John
McFerren, Jr. aided by the following sub-martialsC. A. Mellinger,
Fleetwood Francis, Fred. Klier, R. Care, Col. John Smith, Jr.,
Conrad Bendeman, and Henry Finckman.
Victuallers.This numerous association appeared
in a uniform dress of white roundabout, vest and pantaloons. A
blue ribbon was passed over the right shoulder and under the left
arm of each member to which a Steel was attached. The aprons were
white, and the badge contained a likeness of Carroll of Carrollton.
The banner was carried by Mr. Thomas J. Rusk, supported by Mr.
Wm. Blockley and Mr. Harry Torner, one of whom bore a pole axe,
and the other a cleaver. It contained the victuallers' coat of
arms, surmounted by an Eagle bearing the words, "July
4, 1828." Beneath was the motto"Our country's
prosperityInternal Improvements." Mr. Alexander
Gould acted as principal marshal, assisted by Messrs. John Well,
John Rusk, James Elmore Daniel Crooke, and Charles Myers.
Tailors.A stage drawn by four bay houses, with
drivers in fancy uniform, preceded this association. Upon the
stage, which was a neat representation of a shop, was Mr. Abraham
Sellers, the master tailor, and six journeymen at work. This was
succeeded by the banner, representing Adam and Eve, sewing leaves
together. Below was the motto"And they sewed fig
leaves together." On the other side was the Tailors'
coat of arms and motto. Then followed the members, uniformly dressed
in dark coats, white pantaloons, and white gloves. Around the
neck of each was suspended a badge of white ribbon, ornamented
with a blue frisette, and containing portraits of Washington and
Charles Carroll of Carrollton. When the procession had proceeded
a short distance, a piece of shambray, woven at the Weavers' loom,
was sent to the Tailors, and by the latter made into a coat as
the procession passed along. Upon the ground it was presented
by a deputation to Mr. Carroll. This body was under the direction
of four sub-marshals, viz.: Joshua Dryden, J. N. Fury, Henry W.
Tilyard, and James Jones.
The Procession.Blacksmiths, Machinists, Weavers,
Blacksmiths and Whitesmiths.First came the deputation
from this body of artisans, distinguished by blue ribbons, and
bearing the implements with which to commence the Road, viz:
a Pick, a Spade, a Stone-hammer and a Trowel, all specially made
for the occasion. Immediately succeeding these, came the car or
stage, drawn by four grey horses, with a driver and assistant
to each horse. The car represented a Smith's-shop with furnace,
bellows, &c., in full operation. There were four hands at
work, viz.: Hugh Devallin, John Tensfield, John Burnes, and Tully
Wise. The master workmen of the shop were Mr. Jeremiah Warmingham
and Col. Henry Amy. On each side of the car was seen the motto"United
Sons of Vulcan." The association of Blacksmiths followed,
with the Apprentices in fronteach member wearing a white
apron, ornamented with the device of an anvil, and hammer and
hand.A badge was also worn, containing the likeness of Charles
Carroll of Carrollton, and otherwise appropriately ornamented.
The banner was borne by a master workman; it contained the Blacksmiths'
coat of armson one side the motto, "By Hammer and
Hand all Arts do stand," on the reverse the motto was,
"American ManufacturesInternal Improvement." The
number of this body was about one hundred and sixty, under command
of Mr. William Baer, principal marshalaided by deputy marshals
M. Mettee, Robert Buck, Robert Hitchcock and Jesse Haslup.
Steam Engine Makers, Rollers of Copper and Iron, and Millwrights.The
banner which preceded this association contained various emblems,
surmounted by an eagle bearing this motto:
We join like brothers, hand in hand,
Called by the world a Millwright band
Underneath the emblems was this motto,
Millwrights do their work prepare,
By water power, steam or air.
The members followed, clad with aprons and badges, containing
Weavers, Bleachers, Dyers and Manufacturers of Cotton, and
Wool.This was a numerous association. In front was seen
a stage drawn by four horses, on which was erected a Loom with
weavers at work; and a boy was winding bobbins. Mr. M'Donald,
(the weaver in the procession of 1809) was superintendent of the
operatives. The stage was covered and handsomely festooned with
white domestic muslins, bordered with fringe and tassels of domestic
manufacture. A company of Weavers followed, dressed in a uniform
of white domestic jean trowsers, vest and roundabout; on the left
breast of each was affixed a badge or light blue satin, with an
appropriate device and inscription. The banner came next, borne
by a standard-bearer with two supporters in white dresses and
blue sashes. It was surmounted by a golden shuttle; and represented
the Weavers' coat of arms, surmounted by an Eagle bearing a scroll,
with the inscription"Ye were naked, and we clothed
ye." Beneath the arms was this inscription"Encourage
your Manufactures, they will support Agriculture and Commerce,
and produce real Independence." On the reverse of the
banner was painted a symbolic device, in the centre of which was
a circle of gold, surrounding this motto"The Shuttle,
the Sheaf and the Ship." On the right of the circle,
Britannia was represented by a female figure, in an attitude of
griefthe setting sun in the distance. On the left hand Columbia
is represented by a female figure, grasping a staff surmounted
with the liberty cap. She is stretching forward to receive from
the eagle the golden treasure which the latter is bearing across
the ocean from the Eastern to the Western hemisphere. Underneath
is this motto"A wise and just distribution of labor
and, its reward is the foundation of national prosperity."
A numerous company of Weavers followed, wearing badges on
their breast. The whole was attended by sixteen sub-marshals.
The Procession.Carpenters, Lumber Merchants, Plane
Makers and Stone Cutters.
Carpenters, Lumber Merchants and Plane Makers.This
association was headed, by Mr. John Mowton, as principal Marshal,
followed by the Carpenters over fifty years of age. After these,
on a car drawn by four white horses, came the Temple, a very beautiful
Miniature structure, which excited general and very deserved admiration.
The Temple was a correct specimen of the Doric order of architecture
with porticos on the cast and west front, supported by four fluted
columns. The ascent to the portico was by a flight of five steps.
The exact dimensions of the Temple are seven feet eight inches
front, seven feet five inches depth; the height from the ground
to the top of the entablature, eight feet eleven inches, and to
the top of the pediment, seven feet one inch. The Temple was accompanied
by the Building Committee, and the hands employed in its construction,
each bearing some implement of the trade. The elegant banner of
the association came next, borne by Mr. James Brown, and supported
by Thomas Hazzard and Thomas Murril. In the foreground of the
banner was seen a Doric arcade, and a Railroad depot, warehouses,
&c. Through the centre arch of the arcade was seen the representation
of a Railroad, and a locomotive engine approaching the depot.
On the arcade was this inscription,"Railroad to
the Ohio, July 4, 1828." A wreath of oak leaves ran round
the borders of the banner, on the fillet of which was this inscription,"Public
prosperity, private good." On the reverse was the Carpenters'
coat of arms, with this motto, "In cordia, salus
et robur." The staff of the Banner was surmounted by
a beautiful Gothic architectural emblem executed by Mr. James
Curley. Immediately after, came the association with their apprentices,
fill wearing appropriate badges. The whole was under the conduct
of a principal and sixteen sub-martials.
Stone-Cutters.In the centre of a handsome car,
drawn by four white horses, with drivers in white, was a plinth,
covered with green baize, on which was placed the First Stone
of the Baltimore find Ohio Railroad. It Was of marble, and
on the top was the following inscription:This stone, presented
by the Stone-Cutters of Baltimore, in commemoration of the commencement
of the Baltimore and Ohio Railroad, was here placed on the Fourth
of July, 1828, by the Grand Lodge of MARYLAND,
assisted by CHARLES CARROLL
of Carrolton, the last surviving Signer of the Declaration
of American Independence, and under the direction of the President
and Directors of the Railroad Company." On each side
of the Stone was this inscription:First Stone of the
Baltimore and Ohio Railroad." In the centre of the Stone
was a cavity, for the reception of the glass case containing the
Charter of the Company, newspapers of the day, &c. After the
car was borne the banner, representing a temple of the Tuscan
order, surmounted by an eagle bearing a scroll with this motto,"Under
my wings the Arts shall flourish. Under the temple was inscribed,"The
Stone-Cutters of the City of Baltimore." The dress of
the members was a blue coat, white pantaloons, and a handsomely
decorated apron of white satin. At the breast of each, an appropriate
badge was worn. Principal marshal, Frederick Baughman, aided by
sub-martials, Nicholas Hitzelberger, H. B. Griffith, Alexander
Gaddess, and Edward Mead. Principal standard-bearer, Robert St.
J. Steuart, supported by six guards. The banner used in the procession
of 1809, was also displayed.
The Procession.Masons, Painters and Cabinet Makers.
Masons and Bricklayers.This association was distinguished
by three Banners, the principal one representing a house partly
built, men at work, &c. At the top was the inscription:"Masons
and Bricklayers of Baltimore, united July 4, 1828." Underneath
was the motto,"Liberty throughout the world."
The members wore aprons ornamented with the emblems of their profession;
their badges had on them a trowel, and a Representation of a Railroad.
At the head of the association was Col. James Mosher as principal
marshal, aided by Wm. Reside, E. Green, J. Dickerson, E. Stansbury,
J. Wolf, Wm. Davis, and J. Allen, as sub-marshals. The bearers
of the banners were Edward Frederick, John Ratteau, and Wm. Townsend.
Painters.The car which preceded this association
was designed and ornamented with much taste. It was attended by
six guards, the two first carrying pallet and pencils, and the
others ornamented brushes. On the car was placed a pyramid, on
which was inscribed the date of commencement of the Railroad,
&c. A master painter, Mr. L. O'Laughlin, was seated on the
car, engaged in finishing a portrait, and at the other end was
a boy preparing colors. [We regret that we have not materials
for it more detailed description of the car.] The president and
officers of the association came next, each carrying a small staff;
they were followed by the members, all of whom were dressed in
white jackets, vests and pantaloons, wearing at their breast the
Carrollton badge. This elegant banner of the association was in
the centre, borne by a member, and supported by guards carrying
pallets and pencils. It represented the Painters' coat of arms,
with the motto, "Amor et obedientia." On the
flank of each platoon, was a sub-martial, bearing an ornamented
brush. James M'Donald, principal marshal, and sub-marshals John
Burns, M. Bolton, William Sederberg.
Cabinet Makers.The car or stage of the Cabinet
Makers was ingeniously contrived to represent a bedstead of curled
maple. It was eight feet wide, and twelve feet long, the bed-posts
forming the upright sides of the car. It had a handsome fancy
head-board and cornice, with drapery of pink and blue, tastefully
festooned, and tester complete. On the car were seen a Cabinet
Maker and Carver at work, the former engaged in finishing a patent
rocker cradle. The members and apprentices of the trade followed,
each wearing a badge of white silk, on which was the impression
of a Grecian sofa. In the centre was borne the banner, representing
a cabinet, surmounted by this motto"May there be
union in our cabinet.'' The whole was under the direction
of John Williams, principal marshal, and sub-marshals, James Williams,
Robert Dutton, William M'Cardle, Samuel Bevan, William Meeks,
Lambert Thomas, Wm. M'Colm, and Levin P. Clark.Cabinet Maker
on the stage, Joshua Miller; Carver, William M'Graw. The cradle
was finished and the workmen rocked it on their way home.
The Procession.Chair-Makers, Tanners, Cordwainers
Chair Makers and Ornamental Chair Painters.The
banner at the head of this association represented the Chair Makers'
coat of arms, over which was a Windsor chair, surmounted by wreaths
of roses. The motto was, "An emblem we display."
The members wore a highly ornamented white satin apron, emblematic
of the trade and a white sash with appropriate devices. The principal
marshal was Samuel Mason, aided by four sub-marshals, George Arnold,
William Chestnut, James S. Carnighan, and John Stigars.
Tanners and Curriers.Mr Wm. Jenkins, as principal
marshal, was at the head of this numerous association. A handsome
banner was borne in the centre, containing the coat of arms of
the trade, and the motto "Try what you will there's nothing
like Leather." Each member wore a light leather sash,
ornamented at the breast with a blue rose, encircling a brilliant
spangle. Sub-marshals, R. H. Jones, John Dillahunt, Thos. Sewell,
Benjamin Comegys, Daniel Kalbfus, J. Joyce, Thomas Watts.
Cordwainers.At the head of the Cordwainers was
carried a beautiful silk banner with the coat of arms of the craft.
Beneath was the motto, "Our country right or wrong."
On the reverse was a representation of St. Crispin and St. Crispiana,
with the Latin motto, "Ni nulli, invertiture ordo."
Then followed a stage, drawn by four black horses, with black
drivers dressed in white. Upon it were two master workmen, two
journeymen, and two apprentices, engaged at work, upon a pair
of green morocco slippers which were finished during the procession,
and presented to Mr. Carroll on the ground. The slippers
were very neatly made, and the linings were ornamented with a
view of the Railroad. A pair of beautiful white satin lady's shoes
was also made during the procession. The numerous association
of Cordwainers now passed on, each member wearing a white apron
trimmed with blue ribbon, and stamped with the coat of arms. An
appropriate badge of white satin was also worn on the breast of
each member. The master workmen on the stage wereJames Ackland,
on the part of the boot and shoemakers, and John Wright on the
part of the ladies' shoemakers. The whole was under the direction
of eight sub-marshals.
Hatters.The Hatters were preceded by a handsome
Stage, drawn by four horses. It was decorated with flags, one
of which bore the portrait of the founder of the trade, M. Clement,
who introduced the art into Paris in 1404. The car was the representation
of a complete hat factory, with hands busily employed in all the
various operations of the trade, viz: pulling, cutting, bowing,
felting, napping, blocking, finishing, and knocking down, when
the work deserved it. The car was followed by Messrs. Cox and
Clapp, who headed the association. Next followed a banner, displaying
on one side a Beaver, with the motto, "With the industry
of the Beaver, we maintain our rights." On the other
was depicted an assortment of hats, with the motto, "We
assist each other." The banner was supported on either
side by an elegant white hat, borne by boys. These hats were made
at the request of the association, by Mr. Joseph Branson, the
one designed for Charles Carroll of Carrollton, the other for
General Samuel Smith. The arrow surmounting the banner, bore the
inscription, "We cover all:" and in accordance
with this motto, the Hatters not only "covered" him
who by his wisdom declared us free, but also him who by big bravery
defended and secured it to us. Next followed the master Hatters,
journeymen and apprentices, in number about two hundred, all wearing
white aprons and black morocco badges.
The ProcessionTurners, Coopers, Saddlers, Coach-Makers.
Turners and Machine Makers.Upon a handsomely designed
Stage drawn by four horses, was erected an elegant lathe, with
a turner and filer busily engaged at work. The members all wore
white aprons trimmed with blue, and ornamented with appropriate
devices; the motto upon the stage was"By faith I
obtain." The badges were of white satin, with a device
emblematic of the profession. This association adopted a rather
novel, but not unpleasing mode of testifying their satisfaction
upon the occasion, a place being allotted on the stage to a Piper,
who performed a number of national airs, &c. Marshals, Conrad
Koller and Samuel Johnston. The workmen on the stage were Henry
T. Diffenderffer, turner; John P. Earheart, filer; James Arnold,
piper; William Dawson, chopper.
Coopers.A Stage drawn by six black horses, was
arranged so as to represent a complete Cooper's shop, containing
a master workman, four journeymen, and a boy, all busily engaged
fit work. The banner, carried by Charles Miller, contained the
representation of a barrel in the first truss, with a man at work
on it. The motto was
"Wood to wood, and neatly bound,
The neatest art that ever was found."
Immediately succeeding the stage came the three marshals, John
Durham, Robert Taylor, and Robinson Woolen. These were followed
by about 160 or 170 of the profession with aprons and badges appropriate
to the occasion.
Saddlers and Harness Makers.This association was
preceded by four beautiful horses, each led by a groom clad in
the Arabian costume. The two first horses were caparisoned with
elegant Saddles and Bridles, and the latter two with sets of Harness
of the finest workmanship. The two marshals, Messrs. Edward Jenkins
and Philip Uhler, followed; they were succeeded by the members,
wearing an appropriate badge. The banner was of white silk, containing
the Saddlers' coat of arms, and motto"Hold fastride
sure." Beneath was the date, "July 4, 1828."
Coach-Makers, Coach-Trimmers, Coach-Painters, and Wheelwrights.This
association was headed by a very elegant Barouche, of Baltimore
make, drawn by four beautiful grey horses, with postilions in
rich blue livery. Mr. Joseph Eaverson, principal marshal to the
association, rode in the barouche. The association followed, having
in their centre two banners with the coat of arms of their profession.
The first was borne by James DeBaufre, supported by Alexander
Chase and George Craft. The second, which was the banner used
in 1809, was borne by George Bartol, supported by John Howser,
Sr. and Alex. Boyd. The sub-marshals were Thomas D. Greene, Samuel
H. Howser, William Peers, Philip Trusil and William Dashiell.
Cedar Coopers.At the head of this association
was a Stage drawn by four horses, eighteen feet long and eight
wide, tastefully ornamented with cedar bushes. A master workman
and several journeymen were upon it, employed in making tubs,
baskets, &c. Among the articles finished in the course of
the procession was a Barrel Churn, in which was made a quantity
of butter. The members wore white aprons, ornamented with a cedar
tree, churn and tub; the motto, "Every tub stands on its
own bottom." This body was under the conduct of two sub-marshals,
viz.: William Hall and William Bayner. The workman on the stage
were, John T. Robertson, master; George Zimmerman, Jacob Barrickman,
Leonard Waddle, and two boys; Captain S. H. Moore, churning. The
Cedar Coopers made two churns, two tubs and two buckets-churned
five gallons cream, ate the butter, drank the butter-milk, &c.,
The ProcessionCopper-Smiths, Printers and Book
Copper-Smiths, Brass-Founders, and Tin-Plate Workers.A
neat platform or stage nine feet wide and seventeen feet long,
drawn by four horses, preceded this association. Upon it were
seen two Copper-Smiths, each making a still; two Brass Founders,
one of whom was turning a pair of andirons and the other finishing
a set of stair-rods; and two Tin-Plate Workers, one employed in
making wash-basins, and the other in making tin tumblers, which
he threw to the spectators as the procession passed. In the centre
of the association was borne a handsomely decorated white silk
banner, with a coat of arms emblematic of the three different
branches. Upon the front the motto was, "God is the only
Founder." The apron worn by the Copper-Smiths was decorated
with the representation of it still, and their badge with a hammer.
The aprons of the Brass-Founders were distinguished by a bell,
and their badges by a file. Upon the aprons of the Tin-Plate Workers,
was the representation of an urn and two tumblers, and upon their
badges, that of a mallet. This association numbered upwards of
one hundred. Marshals: Joseph W. Stewart, John Potter, Ebenezer
Hubball, J. Wampler. The workmen on the stage were George Wilson,
master, George Foss, Francis Elder, S. Shinneman, Daniel, Stall,
William Ives, George Meyer and a boy.
Printers.The Printers (for the following description
of whose decorations we are indebted to the polite attention of
Mr. Niles) had a highly finished and fully furnished car, sixteen
feet long and nine wide, drawn by four very stout and handsome
bay horses. The wheels were concealed by white cloth suspended
from the car, relieved by rich festoons of glazed blue muslin.
The posts and railing were tastefully ornamented with oak leaves,
(devoted to civic purposes,) wreathed with flowers. In the front
were portraits of Washington and Franklin; on the
right side, of Jefferson, Carroll and Howard; on
the left, of Decatur, Perry, and Amisteadall
good paintings, and kindly loaned for the occasion. The following
mottoes were painted on the railingin the front and rear,
"Printing"on the left, "The Art
preservative of all Arts;" ;"on the right,
"Truth, is a victor without violence;"on
the front base, "The standing place of Archimedes, from
whence to move the moral world ;"on the rear base,
"We appeal to reason." On the car was placed
an improved iron printing press, (richly decorated and surmounted
by an eagle,) with its bank, &c., two stands with cases
and type, a half hogshead of claret, labelled "Summer
ink," and a hogshead marked "Washing water,"
with specimens of type from the much improved foundry of Mr. Spalding,
and the new and vigorous establishment of Mr. Carter, both of
this city. The following persons were on the car: Hezekiah Niles,
as employer; Thomas Murphy, foreman; Peter Edes, proof-reader;
Robert Neilson, compositor; Abraham Lefever and John F. Cook,
pressmen; E. Mosher, fly; and two fine youths, dressed
as Mercuries, in tight flesh-colored clothing, with winged helmets,
with two small boys, grandsons of Messrs. Edes and Niles;
and Thomas Barrett, steward of the chapel, to whose zeal
and attention the association is much indebted. John D. Toy was
cashier and clerk. The body of the craft was under
charge of W. W. Moore, E. K. Deaver and John N. Millington, marshals,
and the great standard, placed in the centre, was borne alternately
by Messrs. Holliday, Clayton and Abbott. The association, including
the apprentices, amounted to about ninety persons. On the standard
was painted a pressover which a spread eagle, bearing a
scroll"Franklin our guide;" near the bottom
the regular motto, "Printing the art preservative of all
arts." The Mercuries excited much attention. With
long poles they distributed the Declaration of Independence and
an ode, printed during the procession to ladies at the
windows of the houses, or cast them among the mighty mass of population
which filled the side walks. After Mr. Morris had delivered the
address on behalf of the Railroad Company, they escorted by two
Marshals, proceeded to the pavilion, and in the presence of the
venerable and delighted Carroll, having presented the compliments
of Mr. Niles, on behalf of the Printers' Association, requested
of Mr. Morris a copy of the address, that it might be immediately
published, and spread among the people. It was politely handed
to the Mercuries, and, in about an hour afterwards, the same messengers
returned, and delivered to Mr. Carroll and Mr. Morris printed
copies of the address, with the respects of the craft. One of
the Mercuries was also despatched to the valued and venerable
commander of the Union, Admiral Gardner, with a glass of
wine, who received it and drank with Mr. Niles, the head employer
of the Printers, each standing in his place. Previous to the movement
of the procession, when the Printers' car was passing east, to
take its station in line, Captain Kelly, first officer of
the Union, hailed with "Whence came you?" Mr.
Niles replied, "From Port Public Spirit." "Where
bound?" "To Port Independence." "What
news?" "Carroll is about to lay another corner-stone."
On which copies of the Declaration of Independence
were thrown into the ship, and the officers and crew, with the
whole body of seamen, &c., gave three hearty cheers, which
were cordially returned. As the whole happened without previous
concert, the effect was highly interesting to the parties. And
on the return of the procession to the city, the Printers would
have accompanied their friends, the Shipwrights, Boat-Builders,
Riggers, Seamen, &c., to the Point, had not their car been
squabbled, and shown indications of going into pie.
It was therefore halted near the Centre Market, and the model
of the frigate, the boat and the ship passed, the association
being silent and uncovered-when three cheers were given by the
craft, they were returned with great interest by the other party.
It may be remarked that, on all occasions Of this kind, the Seamen
and Printers have been hearty friends; and, after the lapse of
nineteen years, it is worthy of note, that, as in 1809, Captain
Gardner commanded the shipso Mr. Niles presided over the
stage the Printers exhibited.
Book Binders.In front of the Book-Binders, was
borne by eight apprentices, a Stage, upon which were laid two
booksone a beautiful bound ledger, and the other the Report
of the Engineers of the Baltimore and Ohio Rail Road Company.
The latter book was splendidly bound in morocco, and finished
in a style which would do credit to any country. On one cover
was the following inscription
"Presented by the Book Binders of Baltimore to Charles
Carroll of Carrollton, on the 4th July, 1828,"and
on the other, the, name" Hon. Charles Carroll."
After the procession arrived on the ground, the latter book was
presented to Mr. Carroll by Mr. John J. Harrod, accompanied with
an address, which will be found in another part of this description.
While on parade, the Book Binders resolved unanimously,
that an apron and badge be presented to Mr. Skinner,
for the purpose of being transmitted to General La Fayette.
The Procession.Watchmakers and Ship Carpenters.
Watch-Makers, Jewellers, Silver-Smiths and Engravers.At
the head of this association was Col. Standish Barry, as principal
marshal. He was followed by Col. Peter Little, our representative
in Congress, supported by Capt. John Lynch, and Mr. James Ninde.
Then followed a banner used in the Procession of 1809, borne by
Andrew E. Warner. The device was a figure of Time, with this inscription:
"I transmit thee to posterity." Below this figure,
on the right hand side, was seen a Gold Urn; on the left, one
of Silver; in the centre of' the whole was seen a Clock; above
the figure of Time was this inscription: Carried by Captain
Thomas Warner in 1809." The banner was supported by it
member from each branch, viz: James C. Ninde, front the Watch-Makers;
George Webb, from the Jewellers; John N. Green, from the Silver-Smiths;
and William Bannerman, from the Engravers. Next came an Octagonal
Pyramid, borne on the shoulders of assistants, in the front of
which was placed it splendid clock. Around the base, and on the
second tier of the pyramid, were placed superb specimens of richly
chased silver-ware, such as tea and coffee-pots, bowls, goblets,
&c. all the production of the Silver-Smiths of Baltimore.
On the upper tier were placed rich specimens of jewelry, its chains,
seals, and a variety of valuable trinkets, so arranged as to display
that branch of American manufacture to the best advantage. The
pyramid was surmounted by a large silver urn, richly chased and
burnished. This beautiful piece of workmanship weighed about 120
ounces, and we are pleased to say, was also made in Baltimore.
The association followed in the following order: Watch-Makers,
Jewellers, Silver-Smiths, Engravers. The sub-marshals were William
G. Cook, Samuel Kirk, John M. Johannes, John Lynch and J. H. Warfield.
The silver-ware was loaned for the occasion by the maker, Mr.
Samuel Kirk; and the jewelry by Mr. Wm. G. Cook.
Glass Cutters.This association, headed by Mr.
Henry Tingle, numbered about fourteen members. Each of these bore
in his hand a piece of Baltimore cut-glass, the beauty and richness
of which elicited general admiration.
Ship Carpenters, Ship Joiners, Block and Pump Makers.Messrs.
Wm. Price and George Gardner, two of the oldest Shipwrights, rode
in a barouche at the head of this body of artisans. Immediately
after came the large and elegant banner, representing a ship on
the stocks, ready for launching. Above was the American eagle
with extended wings, bearing in it scroll the name of the ship,
"Charles Carroll of Carrollton." Four platoons
of Shipwrights with their assistant marshals followed; and after
these, on a car drawn by six horses, an elegantly finished model
representing the frame of a sixty-four gun ship, the Baltimore,
decorated with flags. The remainder of the body brought up the
rear. The members all wore blue sashes ornamented with the device
of Noah's Ark, and the Railroad. The whole was under the conduct
of marshals James Beacham, Samuel Trimble, William Gardner and
Boat-Builders.On a stage drawn by two horses,
was the model of a boat in frame, very handsomely finished; on
her stern the name Ohio was inscribed. The dress of the
members was uniformly a dark coat, white pantaloons and vest,
and black cravat. The badge was formed by a white satin sash suspended
from the neck, containing on one side a representation of the
Railroad, &c., and on the other, portraits of Washington
and Carroll of Carrollton, and the arms of the Union. Appended
to the badge was the representation of a boat in frame, with this
motto"A ship afloat requires a boat."
The ProcessionRope-makers, Sea captains, Seamen,
Rope-makers..In front of this trade was a stage
drawn by four horses, upon which was an apparatus for making rope,
and five or six hands employed in its manufacture, which was performed
with much dexterity. Master workman, James Neale.
The Riggers, Sail-makers, and Pilots.came next
in order, the former distinguished by their white frocks. Chief
marshal, Mr. John Jillard.
Ship-captains, Mates and Seamen.This association
of our fellow-citizens came next, preceded by the elegant "Ship
Union," completely rigged and found for her voyage of
discovery. Perhaps no single object in the whole of this novel
and splendid procession, attracted more attention, or afforded
greater satisfaction than this beautiful ship, with her sails
set, colors flying, and crew bustling about at the orders of her
officers, and the shrill whistle of her boatswain. The Union is
about twenty-seven feet long, and six feet beam: her colors, as
we have already mentioned, were of silk, and made for the occasion
by the ladies of the Point. Besides these, the Union carried three
flags with the following mottoes: at the fore, "Don't
give up the ship;" at the main, "Free trade and
sailor's rights;" at the mizen, "Success to the
Railroad." Her crew was composed entirely of masters
of vessels, (with the exception of the steward, a boy,) and were
as follows: Timothy Gardner, master; Matthew Kelly, 1st officer;
William H. Conckling, 2d officer; George F. De La Roche, 3d officer;
Wm. Baartscheer, boatswain; William Phillips, Michael McDonald,
John A. Conklin, Richard Edwards, James McCuire, Ray S. Clark,
seamen; Edward Carrington, steward; E.W.R. Sink, pilot. The seamen
were all dressed alike in proper costume, and the jolly dogs seemed
so happy in their voyage, that the smiles of the ladies and the
cheers of the men greeted them on all sides as they sailed along.
After the ship came the Masters, Mates and Seamen on foot, and
in their rear several carriages with aged Masters of the port.
At the commencement of the procession, when the venerable Carroll
was passing along the line, and had come opposite to the ship
Union, riding at anchor in front of this office, be was saluted
on all hands with three hearty cheers. After he had passed, the
following dialogue took place between Mr. Henry Thompson, aid
to the Grand Marshal, and Captain Gardner of the Union, which
was listened to with much interest by a large concourse of people.
Aid.Ship ahoy! Capt. G.Hollo! Aid.What
is the name of that ship, and by whom commanded? Capt. G.The
Union, Captain Gardner. Aid.From whence came
you, and where bound? Capt. G.From Baltimore, bound
to the Ohio. Aid.How will you get over the mountains?
Capt. G.We've engaged a passage by the Railroad.
The question now came from the Ship.What fleet is
that ahead? Aid.The Railroad Pioneers commanded by
Admiral Carroll. Ship.We'll try and overhaul them!
Aid.I wish you successa good voyage to you.
The Union was accordingly soon after got underway, and succeeded
in overhauling the Pioneers on the Railroad ground.
The following Song was sung by the Crew of the Union whilst
Charles Carroll of Carrollton was breaking ground:
TUNEHail to the Chief.
Hail to the road which triumphant commences,
Still closer to unite the East and the West;
Hail to the hope in our vision that glances,
With prosperous commerce again to be blest;
Cheer, loudly cheer, the patriot sage,
Who first of all tugs in spite of his age;
Then cheerily together our efforts uniting,
Let's help this great work in advancing.
O dear and glorious be the day,
Which causes all this grand display:
O long remember'd may it be,
Through Baltimore's prosperity.
The ProcessionDraymen, Juvenile Associations.
Draymen.This association was headed by Mr. John
M'Allister, the oldest member. In front was a horse and drayupon
the latter a pipe, handsomely painted, upon each head of which
was inscribed"Commerce, the supporter of all nations."
The American flag, displayed from a staff planted in front of
the pipe, surmounted the whole. The members were all in their
shirt sleeves, with white vests, aprons, and pantaloons; and each
wore at his left breast, a beautiful blue silk badge, containing
a representation of the Railroad, and the following inscriptions:
"The ceremony of breaking the ground, performed by the venerable
Charles Carroll of Carrollton, in his 92d yearthe only surviving
Signer of the Declaration of Independence. In commemoration of
laying the foundation stone of the Baltimore and Ohio Railroad,
July 4, 1828."
Captain Walter's fine hand of music now followed, and then
Juvenile Associations, in the following order, under the
conduct of Joseph Branson, chief marshal.
Jefferson Association.L.C. M'Phail, principal
marshal; deputy marshal and standard-bearers in white, with blue
sashes and appropriate badges. Members seventy in number, with
blue coats white vests and pantaloons, and blue sashes and appropriate
badges. The first banner represented the Genius of Liberty, bearing
in her hand a scroll on which was inscribed the works of Jefferson.
viz.: The Declaration of Independence, Notes on Virginia &c.
The whole festooned with the star spangled banner; motto,
"Great and Glorious Day." The second banner represented
the tomb of Jefferson, surrounded by wreaths of laurel and cypress.
Juvenile Jackson Association.Distinguished by
a banner with the title of the association, and containing the
representation of two cornucopia, with this motto, "Industry
the means, Plenty the result." David Lefevre, principal
marshal. Standard-bearer and marshals in white, with blue sashes
and badges emblematic of the Railroad. Members about seventy in
number, dressed in blue coats, white vests and pantaloons. Two
other handsome banners were borne in the ranks of this association.
Franklin Association.William Kimmel, marshal;
deputy marshals and standard-bearer, in white, with blue sashes
and white badges containing likenesses of Benjamin Franklin and
Charles Carroll of Carrollton. Upon the banner was a portrait
of Benjamin Franklin; on the reverse, an eagle with a scroll,
on which was inscribed"Franklin Association, July
4, 1828." Members in black jackets, white pantaloons
and blue sashes, about seventy in number.
Carrollton Association.Thomas J. Brown, marshal;
deputy marshals and standard-bearers in white, with white sashes,
and badges bearing the likeness of Mr. Carroll. The members were
sixty-five in number, dressed in black jackets, white pantaloons,
blue sashes and Carrollton badges. On their banner was the name
of "Carroll," surrounded by a wreath and rays
Schools.Associated under the charge of Mr. Denboer,
decorated with badges and breast-knots. They were distinguished
by a banner on which were displayed the letters of the Alphabet,
and this motto
"Large streams from little fountains flow,
Tall oaks from little acorns grow."
Clinton Association.J. R. Baxley, marshal; deputy
marshals and standard bearers in white, with white sashes bearing
the likeness of Carroll of Carrollton. Members, sixty in number,
dressed in black jackets, white vests and pantaloons, and blue
sashes. Their standard bore a wreath of cypress and laurel, surrounding
the word "Gratitude." It was supported on one
side by the secretary, bearing a spade, emblematic of Clinton's
exertions in behalf of Canals, and on the other by the treasurer
bearing the Declaration of Independence, printed on white satin.
Washington Association.James Law, marshal. This
association was composed of a large number of young men between
the ages of eighteen and twenty-three years, dressed in blue coats,
white vests and pantaloons, blue sashes decorated with white badges
on which were the portraits of Washington and Carroll. On the
principal banner was depicted the portrait of him who was "First
in war, first in peace, and first in the hearts of his countrymen,"
surrounded by rays of glory. The other banner was that borne on
the occasion of the visit of La Fayette, in 1824.
After the Juvenile Associations, came the Mayor and City Council,
and the officers of the Corporation. To these succeeded citizens
on horseback and in carriages, and Captain Kennedy's troop of
horse closed this long and magnificent line of procession.
The Road commenced to Ellicott's Mills.
A few days after this stupendous and magnificent celebration,
the line from the corner-stone to Ellicott's Mills, a distance
of nearly fourteen miles, was put under contract, and immediately
commenced. A portion of the road was ready for the rails in the
ensuing October; and in twenty months from the organization of
the company, an additional section, embracing that between Ellicott's
Mills and the Forks of the Patapsco, some twelve miles, was placed
under contract, making the whole line, thus far, over twenty-three
miles in length.
B & O RR
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This page originally appeared on Thomas Ehrenreich's Railroad Extra Website