Laying of the foundation stone.

The celebration of the Fourth of July, and the ceremonies attending the commencement of the Baltimore and Ohio Railroad, brought to town a great concourse of strangers a day or two before the celebration. On the afternoon and evening immediately preceding, all the roads to town were thronged with passengers, while in the city itself, the lively and incessant crowd, in Baltimore street; the movement, of various cars, banners, and other decorations of the Trades, to their several points of destination; the erection of scaffolds, and the removal of window-sashes; gave so many "notes of preparation" for the ensuing fete. Fortunately, the morning of the Fourth rose, not only bright but cool, to the great comfort of the immense throng of spectators that, from a very early hour, filled every window in Baltimore street, and the pavement below, from beyond Bond street on the east, far west on Baltimore street extended, a distance of about two miles. What the number were, we have no means of ascertaining; fifty thousand spectators, at least, must have been present, among the whole of which, we are happy to say, we witnessed a quietness and good order seldom seen in so immense a multitude. With the exception of one or two lost children, we know of no accident that disturbed the festivity of the scene in the city.

The Procession left Bond street a little before eight o'clock, and moved up Baltimore street in the order previously arranged and published. The "good ship," the Union, completely rigged on Fell's Point, was on the extreme left of the line, and as the various Bands of Music, Trades, and other bodies in the procession, passed before it, it was evident, from their greetings, that they regarded this combined symbol of our confederacy and navy with especial approbation. The thick of the crowd, too, was immediately around her. About ten o'clock, the procession reached the spot on which the Foundation Stone of the Railroad was to be placed, in a field two miles and a quarter from town, south of the Frederick Turnpike road, and near Carroll's upper mills, on Gwynn's Falls. Through the middle of this field runs, from north to south, a ridge, of an elevation of perhaps thirty feet; in the centre, and at the summit of which, was erected a pavilion for the reception of Charles Carroll of Carrollton, the President and Directors of the Railroad Company, the Engineers, the Mayor and City Council, and the orator of the day. Among the guests in the pavilion were also the Speaker of the House of Representatives of the United States, Gov. Coles of Indiana, the members of Congress and the Legislature, the Cincinnati and Revolutionary Soldiers, Col. Grenier, and Gen. Devereux. On either side of the pavilion, and along the line of the ridge, was ranged the cavalry. In front of it towards the east, and on the brow of this ridge, was the excavation for the reception of the foundation stone, beneath which, and parallel with the ridge, lay a long and level plain, in which the procession formed on its arrival, facing towards the pavilion. The cars were drawn up in a body on the left, and inclining towards the rear of the pavilion. The Masonic bodies formed a large hollow square round the First Stone. The spectacle presented from the pavilion was gay and splendid in a very high degree.

Laying of the foundation stone.—Mr. Morris' speech.

The ceremonies were commenced by a Prayer by the REV. DR. WYATT, Masonic Grand Chaplain, the vast audience uncovering their heads; when Mr. Upton S. Heath after an eloquent preface, read the Declaration of Independence. The Carrollton March, composed by Mr. Clifton, being then performed, Mr. JOHN B. MORRIS, (one of the Railroad committee of arrangements,) delivered the following Address from the President and Directors of the Company:

"Fellow-Citizens.—The occasion which has assembled us, is one of great and momentous interest. We have met to celebrate the laying of the first stone of the Baltimore and Ohio Railroad: and if there be any thing which could render the day we have chosen more interesting in our eyes, than it already seems, it is that we now commence the construction of a work which is to raise our native city to that rank which the advantages of her situation and the enterprise of her citizens entitle her to hold. The result of our labors will be felt, not only by ourselves, but also by posterity,—not only by Baltimore, but also by Maryland and by the United States. We are about opening the channel through which the commerce of the mighty country beyond the Alleghany must seek the ocean—we are about affording facilities of intercourse between the East and the West, which will bind the one more closely to the other, beyond the power of an increased population or sectional differences to disunite. We are in fact commencing a new era in our history; for there are none present who even doubt the beneficial influence which the intended Road will have in promoting the Agriculture, Manufactures and Inland Commerce of our country. It is but a few years since the introduction of Steamboats effected powerful changes, and made those neighbors, who were before far distant from each other. Of a similar and equally important effect will be in the Baltimore and Ohio Railroad. While the one will have stemmed the torrent of the Mississippi, the other will have surmounted and reduced the heights of the Alleghany: and those obstacles, before considered insuperable, will have ceased to be so, as the ingenuity and industry of man shall have been exerted to overcome them.

Fully impressed with the magnitude of the undertaking committed to their charge, the Board of Directors have used every means to insure success. The best talent of the country is employed in their service:—the General Government has lent its officers to assist in what is justly considered a work of National importance:—much valuable information has been acquired, and with abundant resources at their command, the Board of' Directors find themselves within little inure than a year after the incorporation of the Company, fully prepared to commence the construction of the Great Road.

It is not in mortals to command success; but if a determination to yield to no obstacle which human exertion can overcome an enthusiastic devotion to the cause; a firm belief that the completion of the magnificent work will confer the most important benefits upon our country ; and a thorough conviction that it is practicable;—if all these, urging to action, can ensure success—success shall be ours.

This day fifty-two years since, two millions of people, (the population of the Provinces of Great Britain,) proclaimed themselves Independent States, and commenced the task of self-government. Our native city was then an inconsiderable village, with few and difficult means of' communication with the interior, and with a scanty and slowly increasing commerce. The inhabitants of these, States now number ten millions! and Baltimore has increased in her full proportion of population. Wide avenues now radiate in every direction through the surrounding country:—she has risen to the rank of the third city of the Union, and there are but few sections of the world where her commercial enterprise has not made her known. Fifty-two years since, he, who is this day to lay the first stone of the Great Road, was one among a hand of fearless and noble spirits who resolved and declared that freedom which has been transmitted unimpaired to us.

Mr. Morris' speech.—Address to Mr. Carroll.

The existence which he contributed to give to the United States on the Fourth of July, 1776, on the Fourth of July, 1828, he perpetuates. Ninety-one summers have passed over him. Those who stood with him in the Hall of Independence, have left him solitary upon earth—'the father of his country.' In the full possession of his powers; with his feelings and affections still buoyant and warm, he now declares that the proudest act of his life and the most important in its consequences to his country, was the signature of Independence; the next the laying of the First Stone of the work which is to perpetuate the union of the American States; to make the East and West as one household in the facilities of intercourse, and the feelings of mutual affection. Long may he live, cherished and beloved by his country, a noble relic of the past, a bright example of the present time."

On the conclusion of the address, two boys dressed as Mercuries, advanced to the canopy, and prayed that the Printers might be furnished with a copy of the remarks and address just delivered, that they might be printed and distributed to the people.

The Deputation from the Blacksmiths' Association next advancing, presented Mr. Carroll the Pick, Spade, Stone-Hammer and Trowel, prepared by them for the occasion, and made the following address:
Venerated Sir:—As the representative of the Association of Black and Whitesmiths, I am directed to present to you these implements made and borne to this place by freemen, consisting of a Pick to break the soil, the Spade to remove it, the Hammer to break off rough corners, and the Trowel to lay the cement which is to unite the East to the West, for the commencement of this great work, which will commemorate an epoch in the history of the internal improvement of our beloved country, and that, too, on this illustrious day, which is celebrated as the day that tried the souls of men—the day that gave birth to a nation of freemen—the day, venerated sir, with which you are so conspicuously identified—the day that shall be the polar star to future ages, advertising them, that men dare declare themselves a free and sovereign people, that republics can exist, that neither require the royal diadem nor military rule to direct the great helm of State in safety.

And now, sir, that the present age may bless the men that touched the spring that put in motion this great national work, and that future ages may bless the memory of our beloved Charles Carroll of Carrollton, is the prayer of those freemen that surround you."

Laying the first stone.—The Masonic order.

The Deputation from the Stone Cutters now came forward, and the car containing the Foundation Stone was driven to the spot. While the stone was preparing, Mr. Carroll, accompanied by the Grand Marshal of the day, and by Mr. John B. Morris, and bearing in his hand the spade just presented, descended from the pavilion and advanced to the spot selected for the reception of the Foundation Stone, in order to strike the spade into the ground. He walked with a firm step, and used the instrument with a steady hand, verifying, the prediction of our correspondent, in the song published on the morning of the Fourth:

"The hand that held the pen,
Never falters, but again
Is employed with the spade, to assist his fellow-men.

The Stone was then dexterously removed from the wagon in which it had been to the ground, and placed in its bed. The Grand Master of Maryland then remarked, that before applying the test of his instruments to the Stone, for the purpose of ascertaining its correctness, with the assistance of the Grand Masters of the States of Pennsylvania and Virginia, it might not be amiss to add one to the numerous congratulations then expressed, that Maryland had at last determined to engage in honorable competition with her sister States, in the great work of Internal Improvement. He hailed the presence of the Grand Masters of these States as a propitious omen. On the one hand was Pennsylvania, the first to penetrate the defiles of her mountains with her roads, and she had been ever since employed with ceaseless assiduity, in further developing the resources of her domestic trade. On the other hand was Virginia, who had been for years studiously engaged in creating and preserving a Board, with competent funds, for the promotion of the same great end, manfully struggling against those difficulties which even her energy had hitherto been insufficient to surmount, and therefore doubtless awaiting anxiously the result of our experiment, in order to avail herself of this mode of extended communication. It was only, he said, to notice the countenances of the representatives of a numerous fraternity in these two powerful and neighboring States, and to express in the name of the body whom be represented, their thanks for the kind feelings which had prompted the acceptance of the invitation to join in the ceremonies of the day,—that he had allowed himself to interrupt the usual order with a single remark.

The Grand Master, attended by the P. G. Chaplain of Maryland, and by the Grand Masters of Pennsylvania and Virginia, then applied his instruments to the Stone, and after handing them for the same purpose to the other Grand Masters and receiving their favorable report, pronounced it to be "well formed, true and trusty." The Grand Chaplain invoked the benediction upon the success of the enterprise, the prosperity of the City, and the future life of the venerable man who had assisted in laying the Stone. The ceremony was concluded in the usual manner by pouring wine and oil, and scattering corn, upon the Stone, with a correspondent invocation and response, followed by the grand Masonic honors.

The following is the Inscription: "This Stone, presented by the Stone Cutters of Baltimore, in commemoration of the commencement of the Baltimore and Ohio Railroad, was here placed on the Fourth of July, 1828, by the Grand Lodge of Maryland, assisted by Charles Carroll of Carrollton, the last surviving Signer of the Declaration of American Independence, and under the direction of the president and Directors of the Railroad Company." On each side of the Stone was this inscription:—" FIRST STONE OF THE BALTIMORE AND OHIO RAILROAD."

Papers deposited in the stone.

In the cavity of the Stone was deposited a glass cylinder, hermetrically sealed containing a copy of the Charter of the Company, as granted and confirmed by the States of Maryland, Virginia and Pennsylvania,—and the newspapers of the day, together with a scroll containing these words:

"This Stone is deposited in commemoration of the commencement of the Baltimore and Ohio Railroad. A work of deep and vital interest to the American people. Its accomplishment will confer the most important benefits upon this nation, by facilitating its commerce, diffusing and extending its social intercourse, and perpetuating the happy Union of these, Confederated States. The first general meeting of the citizens of Baltimore to confer upon the adoption of proper measures for undertaking this magnificent work, was on the second day of' February 1827. An act of Incorporation, by the State of Maryland, was granted February 28th, 1827 and was confirmed by the State of Virginia, March 8th, 1827. Stock was subscribed to provide funds for its execution, April 1st, 1827. The first Board of Directors was elected April 23, 1827. The Company was organized 24th April, 1827. An examination of the country was commenced under the direction of Lieutenant Colonel Stephen H. Long and Captain William G. McNeill, United States Topographical Engineers, and William Howard, United States Civil Engineer, assisted by Lieutenants Barney, Trimble, and Dillahunty, of the United States Artillery, and Mr.Harrison, July 2d, 1827. The actual surveys to determine the route, were began by the same officers, with the additional assistance of Lieutenants Cook, Gwynn, Hazzard, Fessenden and Thompson, and Mr. Guion, November 20th, 1827. The Charter of the Company was confirmed by the State of Pennsylvania, February 22d 1828. The State of Maryland became a Stockholder in the Company, by subscribing for half a million dollars of its stock, March 6th, 1829. And the Construction of the Road was commenced July 4th, 1828, under the management of the following named Board of Directors:

Philip Evan Thomas, President,
Isaac McKim,
Talbot Jones,
Charles Carroll of Carrollton,
George Brown, Treasurer,
William Patterson,
William Lorman,
Solomon Etting,
Robert Oliver,
George Hoffman,
Patrick Macauley.
Alexander Brown,
John D. Morris,

"The Engineers, and Assistant Engineers, in the service of the Company, are:—Philip Evan Thomas, President, Lieutenant Colonel Stephen Harryman Long, Jonathan Knight, Board of Engineers. Captain William Gibbs McNeill, U. S. Topographical Engineer. Lieutenants William Cook, Joshua Barney, Walter Gwynn, Isaac Trimble, Richard Edward Hazzard, John N. Dillahunty, of the U. S. Artillery. Casper Willis Wever, Superintendent of Construction."

A National Salute was then fired by the Artillery, stationed on a neighboring hill to the north.

The Deputation of Hatters then presented a beautiful beaver hat to Mr. Carroll, and another of like beauty to General Smith, both made by Mr. Joseph Branson, at the request of the association. Mr. Branson was attended by Messrs. George Rogers and W. Leaman, and the Committee of Arrangements. The Weavers and Tailors, likewise presented to Mr. Carroll a coat made on the way. The Engineers' Report, bound in the most splendid manner, was then presented to him by the Book Binders, who, through Mr. J. J. Harrod, made him an address in the following words:—
"Revered Sire and Patriot—Do the favor to accept from the Book Binders, of the City of Baltimore, this Copy of the Engineers' Report of the Baltimore and Ohio Railroad Surveys, its it small tribute of their profound respect for your amiable character and patriotic services.

More than half a century has elapsed since you recorded your name on the memorable charter of our country's independence: An instrument which surprised the civilized world by the novelty of its sublime maxims on the interesting subject of Human Freedom.

And now, this fifty-second Anniversary of American Independence finds you in the plain, but dignified character of a private citizen, mingling with our fellow citizens, and by their unanimous wish, sustaining a conspicuous part in commencing the magnificent enterprise of 'The Baltimore and Ohio Railroad,' which, when completed, will, doubtless, materially subserve, to an immense extent, the commercial interests of this prosperous and spreading empire.

We cannot forbear to unite our voices with those of the great multitude that surrounds you, in expressing the high sense of admiration we entertain, whilst contemplating these two acts of your life; and in invoking for your welfare the perpetual blessings and protection of an overruling Providence."

A deputation was now received from Capt. Gardner, of the ship Union, inviting Mr. Carroll and the Directors of the Railroad Company, to visit the ship. They complied with this request, accompanied by General Smith, the Grand Marshal and his aids, and partook of refreshments on board of this miniature vessel. After leaving her, Mr. Carroll visited the Cars of the different Trades, and was received and cheered by them with the utmost enthusiasm. During the whole ceremony, the venerable patriot preserved a vivacity and spirit remarkable indeed at his advanced age.

The Procession.

The ceremonies on the ground were concluded about twelve o'clock, and the procession being formed again, returned to town, by the indicated route, and dismissed in Baltimore street, at half past one o'clock.

The procession, on its return to the city, was headed by two handsome Cars from the Union Manufacturing Company's Works, which added greatly to the interest of the occasion. One of these huge carriages contained sixty, and the other forty-two females, belonging to the above factory. On the sides of the cars, which were fancifully decorated by the females themselves, was painted "Union Factory." Messrs. Joseph White and Richard Partington rode in the cars as protectors, They subsequently passed through several of the streets.

Between four and five in the afternoon, the Knights Templar marched in procession from the Masonic Lodge, to the Globe Inn, where they dined in their encampment, a handsome pavillion prepared in the court of that Inn. A number of associations dined together, with the usual ceremonies observed on these occasions, and at night a display of Fire Works took place on Federal Hill, immediately opposite the city. The day concluded with more decorum and quiet, than we remember to have seen on any like occassion.—No small part of this is due to the happy arrangement, and superintendence of the Marshals of the day, who have given in the result, the best and most flattering evidence of their competence to the laborious and delicate task assigned to them.

The Procession was headed by Captain Cox's troop, the First Baltimore Hussars. The Pioneers with the implements of labor on their shoulders, followed next. Then came the Masonic Fraternity, decorated with the various insignia of their order; the Junior Lodges in front, and the Grand Lodge of Maryland bringing up the rear. In the ranks of the Grand Lodge were Officers of the Grand Lodges of Pennsylvania and Virginia, who visited Baltimore for the special purpose of assisting in the ceremonies of the day. The Grand Marshal of the day, Mr. Samuel Sterett, followed, attended by his aids, Messrs. Henry Thompson, Samuel Moore and John Thomas. In an elegant landaulet and four, were seated the venerable Charles Carroll of Carrollton, the only surviving Signer of the Declaration of Independence, and General Samuel Smith, Senator of Maryland in Congress. A barouche and four succeeded, in which were Col. U. S. Heath, the Orator of the day, Mr. William Patterson, Hon. Andrew Stevenson, Speaker of the House of Representatives of the United States, and Governor Coles, of Indiana. Two other barouches followed, in the first of which were seated Col. Greneir, aid to General La Fafayette at the surrender of Cornwallis, and General William McDonald; and in the latter, Col. Thomas Tennant and General Devereux. Then followed, on foot, in double files, the Directors of the Baltimore and Ohio Rail Road Company; the Military and Civil Engineers of the Company; the Order of Cincinnati, and Soldiers of the Revolution. A Band of Music came next; and then followed, in order, the several Associations, Trades, &c., as here described:

The Procession.—The Farmers.

Farmers and Planters.—At the head of this body, on horseback, and in double files, were seen twenty-four aged and respectable Farmers, corresponding with the number of the States of the Union. One of these carried a banner on which was inscribed,—" The wilderness and the solitary place shall be glad, and the desert shall rejoice and blossom as the rose." Then followed a Stage or platform, bearing a plough, guided by Gen. Tobias E. Stansbury, and driven by Mr. George Harryman. In front the stage was ornamented with two living mulberry trees, bearing numbers of the cocoon of the silk worm; and in the rear were seen growing stalks of corn, &c. On the right of the stage was displayed the Flag of the Union, and on the left a staff surmounted by a Liberty Cap, on one side of which was the motto, "E, pluribus unum," and on the other, "Where Liberty dwells, there is My country." In the centre of the stage was a banner with this motto,—" Our swords are beaten into plough-shares, and our spears into pruning-hooks."

Then followed Colonel Nicholas M. Bosley, the Seedsman, on horse-back, dressed in homespun. His shoulders were ornamented with epaulets of the heads of timothy grass and wheat, and from his shoulders was suspended a bag of grain, which he sowed as he passed along. In his hand he held a banner with this inscription,—" He who soweth good seed shall reap abundantly." A second Stage succeeded, on which was a Harrow, held by Mr. John Scott. In front was a flag with the motto,—"Paul may plant, and Apollos water, but God giveth the increase." A third Stage followed, containing sheaves of wheat and rye, and farmers engaged in the business of harvesting. The Farmers on this stage were Mr. William Jessop, reaper; Mr. Leo Tipton, cradler; and Mr. Nicholas Gatch, raker and binder. The banner contained the following motto.—"Behold the day is come. Put ye in the sickle and reap, for the harvest is ripe." In the fourth were seen Messrs. Elias Brown and James Turner, threshing wheat and rye. At the other end were a wheat fan and a straw cutter, both of which were kept busily in operation. The winnowers were Messrs. William Scharf and James W. M'Culloch; the straw cutter was Mr. Upton Reid; the feeder, Mr. John J. Bayley: and the clearer, Master John H. Scharf. On the banner was inscribed this motto—"He thresheth in hope, and is a partaker of his hope." Over the wheat fan was this motto—"He will gather the wheat into his garner, and the chaff he will barn." The fifth Stage closed the procession of the farmers. On it was a handsome apple tree, with a living grape-vine growing among its branches. Under the tree was a fine milch cow, with a person employed in milking. At one end of the stage was a pen with pigs. Mr. Noah Underwood was on the stage engaged at the churn. On a banner over the vine, was this motto—"Every man may sit under his own vine and fig tree, and none shall make him afraid." Over the cow floated a banner with this motto—"A land flowing with milk and honey." This stage was furnished and arranged at the sole expense of Mr. Underwood.

Gardeners.—This association to the number of sixty or seventy, was preceded by its banner, containing on one side, in appropriate device to represent the antiquity of the profession. The motto was, "God is our trust." On the reverse was a cornucopia, and the serpent beguiling Eve. The members were all clothed in white jackets, vests and pantaloons; and each wore in his breast a bouquet of beautiful flowers. Principal marshal, Robert Dower.

The Procession.—Millers, Bakers, Victuallers, Tailors, &c.

Millers and Flour Inspectors.—At the head of this association was carried a banner of white silk, containing on one side a representation of a mill, fall of water, &c. On the other, the representation of a crane, with two mill-stones suspended. Motto—"The Millers of Maryland." Each miller wore a silk badge on his vest, with a device of the tools of his profession, and a sketch of a Railroad. The marshals and banner-bearer were dressed in white, with blue sashes. The Cart of the Flour Inspectors came next, in which were the furnace and branding irons—the whole overshadowed by a beautiful oleander still in full bloom. The Inspectors, in drab coats, white hats, vests and pantaloons brought up the rear, each having his scoop under his arm. The principal marshals of this body were David Rickets and R. Purnell. Standard-bearer James Powers, supported by William Durham and Isaac Walmsley.

Bakers.—Two of the oldest bakers of Baltimore, Messrs. B. Struthoff and John Soper, were in front of this association. Next came the master bakers, in sections of five, with a sub-martial on the right of sections.—Then followed the banner, borne by Mr. Geo. Al. Blensineger; it represented a baker in the act of drawing bread from the oven; motto—"Equal rights, and a persecuted branch; approved Feb. 21, 1828." The bearer was flanked by the committee of arrangement, wearing blue sashes, peels, and Railroad badges. A band of music succeeded, flanked by three loaf-bread and three biscuit bakers, each carrying a peel painted blue. The journeymen and apprentices followed. The association was uniformly dressed in white, and numbered from eighty to one hundred men. The principal marshal was Mr. John McFerren, Jr. aided by the following sub-martials—C. A. Mellinger, Fleetwood Francis, Fred. Klier, R. Care, Col. John Smith, Jr., Conrad Bendeman, and Henry Finckman.

Victuallers.—This numerous association appeared in a uniform dress of white roundabout, vest and pantaloons. A blue ribbon was passed over the right shoulder and under the left arm of each member to which a Steel was attached. The aprons were white, and the badge contained a likeness of Carroll of Carrollton. The banner was carried by Mr. Thomas J. Rusk, supported by Mr. Wm. Blockley and Mr. Harry Torner, one of whom bore a pole axe, and the other a cleaver. It contained the victuallers' coat of arms, surmounted by an Eagle bearing the words, "July 4, 1828." Beneath was the motto—"Our country's prosperity—Internal Improvements." Mr. Alexander Gould acted as principal marshal, assisted by Messrs. John Well, John Rusk, James Elmore Daniel Crooke, and Charles Myers.

Tailors.—A stage drawn by four bay houses, with drivers in fancy uniform, preceded this association. Upon the stage, which was a neat representation of a shop, was Mr. Abraham Sellers, the master tailor, and six journeymen at work. This was succeeded by the banner, representing Adam and Eve, sewing leaves together. Below was the motto—"And they sewed fig leaves together." On the other side was the Tailors' coat of arms and motto. Then followed the members, uniformly dressed in dark coats, white pantaloons, and white gloves. Around the neck of each was suspended a badge of white ribbon, ornamented with a blue frisette, and containing portraits of Washington and Charles Carroll of Carrollton. When the procession had proceeded a short distance, a piece of shambray, woven at the Weavers' loom, was sent to the Tailors, and by the latter made into a coat as the procession passed along. Upon the ground it was presented by a deputation to Mr. Carroll. This body was under the direction of four sub-marshals, viz.: Joshua Dryden, J. N. Fury, Henry W. Tilyard, and James Jones.

The Procession.—Blacksmiths, Machinists, Weavers, &c.

Blacksmiths and Whitesmiths.—First came the deputation from this body of artisans, distinguished by blue ribbons, and bearing the implements with which to commence the Road, viz:— a Pick, a Spade, a Stone-hammer and a Trowel, all specially made for the occasion. Immediately succeeding these, came the car or stage, drawn by four grey horses, with a driver and assistant to each horse. The car represented a Smith's-shop with furnace, bellows, &c., in full operation. There were four hands at work, viz.: Hugh Devallin, John Tensfield, John Burnes, and Tully Wise. The master workmen of the shop were Mr. Jeremiah Warmingham and Col. Henry Amy. On each side of the car was seen the motto—"United Sons of Vulcan." The association of Blacksmiths followed, with the Apprentices in front—each member wearing a white apron, ornamented with the device of an anvil, and hammer and hand.—A badge was also worn, containing the likeness of Charles Carroll of Carrollton, and otherwise appropriately ornamented. The banner was borne by a master workman; it contained the Blacksmiths' coat of arms—on one side the motto, "By Hammer and Hand all Arts do stand," on the reverse the motto was, "American Manufactures—Internal Improvement." The number of this body was about one hundred and sixty, under command of Mr. William Baer, principal marshal—aided by deputy marshals M. Mettee, Robert Buck, Robert Hitchcock and Jesse Haslup.

Steam Engine Makers, Rollers of Copper and Iron, and Millwrights.—The banner which preceded this association contained various emblems, surmounted by an eagle bearing this motto:

We join like brothers, hand in hand,
Called by the world a Millwright band

Underneath the emblems was this motto,

Millwrights do their work prepare,
By water power, steam or air.

The members followed, clad with aprons and badges, containing appropriate emblems.

Weavers, Bleachers, Dyers and Manufacturers of Cotton, and Wool.—This was a numerous association. In front was seen a stage drawn by four horses, on which was erected a Loom with weavers at work; and a boy was winding bobbins. Mr. M'Donald, (the weaver in the procession of 1809) was superintendent of the operatives. The stage was covered and handsomely festooned with white domestic muslins, bordered with fringe and tassels of domestic manufacture. A company of Weavers followed, dressed in a uniform of white domestic jean trowsers, vest and roundabout; on the left breast of each was affixed a badge or light blue satin, with an appropriate device and inscription. The banner came next, borne by a standard-bearer with two supporters in white dresses and blue sashes. It was surmounted by a golden shuttle; and represented the Weavers' coat of arms, surmounted by an Eagle bearing a scroll, with the inscription—"Ye were naked, and we clothed ye." Beneath the arms was this inscription—"Encourage your Manufactures, they will support Agriculture and Commerce, and produce real Independence." On the reverse of the banner was painted a symbolic device, in the centre of which was a circle of gold, surrounding this motto—"The Shuttle, the Sheaf and the Ship." On the right of the circle, Britannia was represented by a female figure, in an attitude of grief—the setting sun in the distance. On the left hand Columbia is represented by a female figure, grasping a staff surmounted with the liberty cap. She is stretching forward to receive from the eagle the golden treasure which the latter is bearing across the ocean from the Eastern to the Western hemisphere. Underneath is this motto—"A wise and just distribution of labor and, its reward is the foundation of national prosperity." A numerous company of Weavers followed, wearing badges on their breast. The whole was attended by sixteen sub-marshals.

The Procession.—Carpenters, Lumber Merchants, Plane Makers and Stone Cutters.

Carpenters, Lumber Merchants and Plane Makers.—This association was headed, by Mr. John Mowton, as principal Marshal, followed by the Carpenters over fifty years of age. After these, on a car drawn by four white horses, came the Temple, a very beautiful Miniature structure, which excited general and very deserved admiration. The Temple was a correct specimen of the Doric order of architecture with porticos on the cast and west front, supported by four fluted columns. The ascent to the portico was by a flight of five steps. The exact dimensions of the Temple are seven feet eight inches front, seven feet five inches depth; the height from the ground to the top of the entablature, eight feet eleven inches, and to the top of the pediment, seven feet one inch. The Temple was accompanied by the Building Committee, and the hands employed in its construction, each bearing some implement of the trade. The elegant banner of the association came next, borne by Mr. James Brown, and supported by Thomas Hazzard and Thomas Murril. In the foreground of the banner was seen a Doric arcade, and a Railroad depot, warehouses, &c. Through the centre arch of the arcade was seen the representation of a Railroad, and a locomotive engine approaching the depot. On the arcade was this inscription,—"Railroad to the Ohio, July 4, 1828." A wreath of oak leaves ran round the borders of the banner, on the fillet of which was this inscription,—"Public prosperity, private good." On the reverse was the Carpenters' coat of arms, with this motto,— "In cordia, salus et robur." The staff of the Banner was surmounted by a beautiful Gothic architectural emblem executed by Mr. James Curley. Immediately after, came the association with their apprentices, fill wearing appropriate badges. The whole was under the conduct of a principal and sixteen sub-martials.

Stone-Cutters.—In the centre of a handsome car, drawn by four white horses, with drivers in white, was a plinth, covered with green baize, on which was placed the First Stone of the Baltimore find Ohio Railroad. It Was of marble, and on the top was the following inscription:—This stone, presented by the Stone-Cutters of Baltimore, in commemoration of the commencement of the Baltimore and Ohio Railroad, was here placed on the Fourth of July, 1828, by the Grand Lodge of MARYLAND, assisted by CHARLES CARROLL of Carrolton, the last surviving Signer of the Declaration of American Independence, and under the direction of the President and Directors of the Railroad Company." On each side of the Stone was this inscription:—First Stone of the Baltimore and Ohio Railroad." In the centre of the Stone was a cavity, for the reception of the glass case containing the Charter of the Company, newspapers of the day, &c. After the car was borne the banner, representing a temple of the Tuscan order, surmounted by an eagle bearing a scroll with this motto,—"Under my wings the Arts shall flourish. Under the temple was inscribed,—"The Stone-Cutters of the City of Baltimore." The dress of the members was a blue coat, white pantaloons, and a handsomely decorated apron of white satin. At the breast of each, an appropriate badge was worn. Principal marshal, Frederick Baughman, aided by sub-martials, Nicholas Hitzelberger, H. B. Griffith, Alexander Gaddess, and Edward Mead. Principal standard-bearer, Robert St. J. Steuart, supported by six guards. The banner used in the procession of 1809, was also displayed.

The Procession.—Masons, Painters and Cabinet Makers.

Masons and Bricklayers.—This association was distinguished by three Banners, the principal one representing a house partly built, men at work, &c. At the top was the inscription:—"Masons and Bricklayers of Baltimore, united July 4, 1828." Underneath was the motto,—"Liberty throughout the world." The members wore aprons ornamented with the emblems of their profession; their badges had on them a trowel, and a Representation of a Railroad. At the head of the association was Col. James Mosher as principal marshal, aided by Wm. Reside, E. Green, J. Dickerson, E. Stansbury, J. Wolf, Wm. Davis, and J. Allen, as sub-marshals. The bearers of the banners were Edward Frederick, John Ratteau, and Wm. Townsend.

Painters.—The car which preceded this association was designed and ornamented with much taste. It was attended by six guards, the two first carrying pallet and pencils, and the others ornamented brushes. On the car was placed a pyramid, on which was inscribed the date of commencement of the Railroad, &c. A master painter, Mr. L. O'Laughlin, was seated on the car, engaged in finishing a portrait, and at the other end was a boy preparing colors. [We regret that we have not materials for it more detailed description of the car.] The president and officers of the association came next, each carrying a small staff; they were followed by the members, all of whom were dressed in white jackets, vests and pantaloons, wearing at their breast the Carrollton badge. This elegant banner of the association was in the centre, borne by a member, and supported by guards carrying pallets and pencils. It represented the Painters' coat of arms, with the motto, "Amor et obedientia." On the flank of each platoon, was a sub-martial, bearing an ornamented brush. James M'Donald, principal marshal, and sub-marshals John Burns, M. Bolton, William Sederberg.

Cabinet Makers.—The car or stage of the Cabinet Makers was ingeniously contrived to represent a bedstead of curled maple. It was eight feet wide, and twelve feet long, the bed-posts forming the upright sides of the car. It had a handsome fancy head-board and cornice, with drapery of pink and blue, tastefully festooned, and tester complete. On the car were seen a Cabinet Maker and Carver at work, the former engaged in finishing a patent rocker cradle. The members and apprentices of the trade followed, each wearing a badge of white silk, on which was the impression of a Grecian sofa. In the centre was borne the banner, representing a cabinet, surmounted by this motto—"May there be union in our cabinet.'' The whole was under the direction of John Williams, principal marshal, and sub-marshals, James Williams, Robert Dutton, William M'Cardle, Samuel Bevan, William Meeks, Lambert Thomas, Wm. M'Colm, and Levin P. Clark.—Cabinet Maker on the stage, Joshua Miller; Carver, William M'Graw. The cradle was finished and the workmen rocked it on their way home.

The Procession.—Chair-Makers, Tanners, Cordwainers and Hatters.

Chair Makers and Ornamental Chair Painters.—The banner at the head of this association represented the Chair Makers' coat of arms, over which was a Windsor chair, surmounted by wreaths of roses. The motto was, "An emblem we display." The members wore a highly ornamented white satin apron, emblematic of the trade and a white sash with appropriate devices. The principal marshal was Samuel Mason, aided by four sub-marshals, George Arnold, William Chestnut, James S. Carnighan, and John Stigars.

Tanners and Curriers.—Mr Wm. Jenkins, as principal marshal, was at the head of this numerous association. A handsome banner was borne in the centre, containing the coat of arms of the trade, and the motto "Try what you will there's nothing like Leather." Each member wore a light leather sash, ornamented at the breast with a blue rose, encircling a brilliant spangle. Sub-marshals, R. H. Jones, John Dillahunt, Thos. Sewell, Benjamin Comegys, Daniel Kalbfus, J. Joyce, Thomas Watts.

Cordwainers.—At the head of the Cordwainers was carried a beautiful silk banner with the coat of arms of the craft. Beneath was the motto, "Our country right or wrong." On the reverse was a representation of St. Crispin and St. Crispiana, with the Latin motto, "Ni nulli, invertiture ordo." Then followed a stage, drawn by four black horses, with black drivers dressed in white. Upon it were two master workmen, two journeymen, and two apprentices, engaged at work, upon a pair of green morocco slippers which were finished during the procession, and presented to Mr. Carroll on the ground. The slippers were very neatly made, and the linings were ornamented with a view of the Railroad. A pair of beautiful white satin lady's shoes was also made during the procession. The numerous association of Cordwainers now passed on, each member wearing a white apron trimmed with blue ribbon, and stamped with the coat of arms. An appropriate badge of white satin was also worn on the breast of each member. The master workmen on the stage were—James Ackland, on the part of the boot and shoemakers, and John Wright on the part of the ladies' shoemakers. The whole was under the direction of eight sub-marshals.

Hatters.—The Hatters were preceded by a handsome Stage, drawn by four horses. It was decorated with flags, one of which bore the portrait of the founder of the trade, M. Clement, who introduced the art into Paris in 1404. The car was the representation of a complete hat factory, with hands busily employed in all the various operations of the trade, viz: pulling, cutting, bowing, felting, napping, blocking, finishing, and knocking down, when the work deserved it. The car was followed by Messrs. Cox and Clapp, who headed the association. Next followed a banner, displaying on one side a Beaver, with the motto, "With the industry of the Beaver, we maintain our rights." On the other was depicted an assortment of hats, with the motto, "We assist each other." The banner was supported on either side by an elegant white hat, borne by boys. These hats were made at the request of the association, by Mr. Joseph Branson, the one designed for Charles Carroll of Carrollton, the other for General Samuel Smith. The arrow surmounting the banner, bore the inscription, "We cover all:" and in accordance with this motto, the Hatters not only "covered" him who by his wisdom declared us free, but also him who by big bravery defended and secured it to us. Next followed the master Hatters, journeymen and apprentices, in number about two hundred, all wearing white aprons and black morocco badges.

The Procession—Turners, Coopers, Saddlers, Coach-Makers.

Turners and Machine Makers.—Upon a handsomely designed Stage drawn by four horses, was erected an elegant lathe, with a turner and filer busily engaged at work. The members all wore white aprons trimmed with blue, and ornamented with appropriate devices; the motto upon the stage was—"By faith I obtain." The badges were of white satin, with a device emblematic of the profession. This association adopted a rather novel, but not unpleasing mode of testifying their satisfaction upon the occasion, a place being allotted on the stage to a Piper, who performed a number of national airs, &c. Marshals, Conrad Koller and Samuel Johnston. The workmen on the stage were Henry T. Diffenderffer, turner; John P. Earheart, filer; James Arnold, piper; William Dawson, chopper.

Coopers.—A Stage drawn by six black horses, was arranged so as to represent a complete Cooper's shop, containing a master workman, four journeymen, and a boy, all busily engaged fit work. The banner, carried by Charles Miller, contained the representation of a barrel in the first truss, with a man at work on it. The motto was—

"Wood to wood, and neatly bound,
The neatest art that ever was found."

Immediately succeeding the stage came the three marshals, John Durham, Robert Taylor, and Robinson Woolen. These were followed by about 160 or 170 of the profession with aprons and badges appropriate to the occasion.

Saddlers and Harness Makers.—This association was preceded by four beautiful horses, each led by a groom clad in the Arabian costume. The two first horses were caparisoned with elegant Saddles and Bridles, and the latter two with sets of Harness of the finest workmanship. The two marshals, Messrs. Edward Jenkins and Philip Uhler, followed; they were succeeded by the members, wearing an appropriate badge. The banner was of white silk, containing the Saddlers' coat of arms, and motto—"Hold fast—ride sure." Beneath was the date, "July 4, 1828."

Coach-Makers, Coach-Trimmers, Coach-Painters, and Wheelwrights.—This association was headed by a very elegant Barouche, of Baltimore make, drawn by four beautiful grey horses, with postilions in rich blue livery. Mr. Joseph Eaverson, principal marshal to the association, rode in the barouche. The association followed, having in their centre two banners with the coat of arms of their profession. The first was borne by James DeBaufre, supported by Alexander Chase and George Craft. The second, which was the banner used in 1809, was borne by George Bartol, supported by John Howser, Sr. and Alex. Boyd. The sub-marshals were Thomas D. Greene, Samuel H. Howser, William Peers, Philip Trusil and William Dashiell.

Cedar Coopers.—At the head of this association was a Stage drawn by four horses, eighteen feet long and eight wide, tastefully ornamented with cedar bushes. A master workman and several journeymen were upon it, employed in making tubs, baskets, &c. Among the articles finished in the course of the procession was a Barrel Churn, in which was made a quantity of butter. The members wore white aprons, ornamented with a cedar tree, churn and tub; the motto, "Every tub stands on its own bottom." This body was under the conduct of two sub-marshals, viz.: William Hall and William Bayner. The workman on the stage were, John T. Robertson, master; George Zimmerman, Jacob Barrickman, Leonard Waddle, and two boys; Captain S. H. Moore, churning. The Cedar Coopers made two churns, two tubs and two buckets-churned five gallons cream, ate the butter, drank the butter-milk, &c., &c.

The Procession—Copper-Smiths, Printers and Book Binders.

Copper-Smiths, Brass-Founders, and Tin-Plate Workers.—A neat platform or stage nine feet wide and seventeen feet long, drawn by four horses, preceded this association. Upon it were seen two Copper-Smiths, each making a still; two Brass Founders, one of whom was turning a pair of andirons and the other finishing a set of stair-rods; and two Tin-Plate Workers, one employed in making wash-basins, and the other in making tin tumblers, which he threw to the spectators as the procession passed. In the centre of the association was borne a handsomely decorated white silk banner, with a coat of arms emblematic of the three different branches. Upon the front the motto was, "God is the only Founder." The apron worn by the Copper-Smiths was decorated with the representation of it still, and their badge with a hammer. The aprons of the Brass-Founders were distinguished by a bell, and their badges by a file. Upon the aprons of the Tin-Plate Workers, was the representation of an urn and two tumblers, and upon their badges, that of a mallet. This association numbered upwards of one hundred. Marshals: Joseph W. Stewart, John Potter, Ebenezer Hubball, J. Wampler. The workmen on the stage were George Wilson, master, George Foss, Francis Elder, S. Shinneman, Daniel, Stall, William Ives, George Meyer and a boy.

Printers.—The Printers (for the following description of whose decorations we are indebted to the polite attention of Mr. Niles) had a highly finished and fully furnished car, sixteen feet long and nine wide, drawn by four very stout and handsome bay horses. The wheels were concealed by white cloth suspended from the car, relieved by rich festoons of glazed blue muslin. The posts and railing were tastefully ornamented with oak leaves, (devoted to civic purposes,) wreathed with flowers. In the front were portraits of Washington and Franklin; on the right side, of Jefferson, Carroll and Howard; on the left, of Decatur, Perry, and Amistead—all good paintings, and kindly loaned for the occasion. The following mottoes were painted on the railing—in the front and rear, "Printing"—on the left, "The Art preservative of all Arts;" ;"—on the right, "Truth, is a victor without violence;"—on the front base, "The standing place of Archimedes, from whence to move the moral world ;"—on the rear base, "We appeal to reason." On the car was placed an improved iron printing press, (richly decorated and surmounted by an eagle,) with its bank, &c., two stands with cases and type, a half hogshead of claret, labelled "Summer ink," and a hogshead marked "Washing water," with specimens of type from the much improved foundry of Mr. Spalding, and the new and vigorous establishment of Mr. Carter, both of this city. The following persons were on the car: Hezekiah Niles, as employer; Thomas Murphy, foreman; Peter Edes, proof-reader; Robert Neilson, compositor; Abraham Lefever and John F. Cook, pressmen; E. Mosher, fly; and two fine youths, dressed as Mercuries, in tight flesh-colored clothing, with winged helmets, with two small boys, grandsons of Messrs. Edes and Niles; and Thomas Barrett, steward of the chapel, to whose zeal and attention the association is much indebted. John D. Toy was cashier and clerk. The body of the craft was under charge of W. W. Moore, E. K. Deaver and John N. Millington, marshals, and the great standard, placed in the centre, was borne alternately by Messrs. Holliday, Clayton and Abbott. The association, including the apprentices, amounted to about ninety persons. On the standard was painted a press—over which a spread eagle, bearing a scroll—"Franklin our guide;" near the bottom the regular motto, "Printing the art preservative of all arts." The Mercuries excited much attention. With long poles they distributed the Declaration of Independence and an ode, printed during the procession to ladies at the windows of the houses, or cast them among the mighty mass of population which filled the side walks. After Mr. Morris had delivered the address on behalf of the Railroad Company, they escorted by two Marshals, proceeded to the pavilion, and in the presence of the venerable and delighted Carroll, having presented the compliments of Mr. Niles, on behalf of the Printers' Association, requested of Mr. Morris a copy of the address, that it might be immediately published, and spread among the people. It was politely handed to the Mercuries, and, in about an hour afterwards, the same messengers returned, and delivered to Mr. Carroll and Mr. Morris printed copies of the address, with the respects of the craft. One of the Mercuries was also despatched to the valued and venerable commander of the Union, Admiral Gardner, with a glass of wine, who received it and drank with Mr. Niles, the head employer of the Printers, each standing in his place. Previous to the movement of the procession, when the Printers' car was passing east, to take its station in line, Captain Kelly, first officer of the Union, hailed with "Whence came you?" Mr. Niles replied, "From Port Public Spirit." "Where bound?" "To Port Independence." "What news?" "Carroll is about to lay another corner-stone." On which copies of the Declaration of Independence were thrown into the ship, and the officers and crew, with the whole body of seamen, &c., gave three hearty cheers, which were cordially returned. As the whole happened without previous concert, the effect was highly interesting to the parties. And on the return of the procession to the city, the Printers would have accompanied their friends, the Shipwrights, Boat-Builders, Riggers, Seamen, &c., to the Point, had not their car been squabbled, and shown indications of going into pie. It was therefore halted near the Centre Market, and the model of the frigate, the boat and the ship passed, the association being silent and uncovered-when three cheers were given by the craft, they were returned with great interest by the other party. It may be remarked that, on all occasions Of this kind, the Seamen and Printers have been hearty friends; and, after the lapse of nineteen years, it is worthy of note, that, as in 1809, Captain Gardner commanded the ship—so Mr. Niles presided over the stage the Printers exhibited.

Book Binders.—In front of the Book-Binders, was borne by eight apprentices, a Stage, upon which were laid two books—one a beautiful bound ledger, and the other the Report of the Engineers of the Baltimore and Ohio Rail Road Company. The latter book was splendidly bound in morocco, and finished in a style which would do credit to any country. On one cover was the following inscription—
"Presented by the Book Binders of Baltimore to Charles Carroll of Carrollton, on the 4th July, 1828,"—and on the other, the, name—" Hon. Charles Carroll." After the procession arrived on the ground, the latter book was presented to Mr. Carroll by Mr. John J. Harrod, accompanied with an address, which will be found in another part of this description. While on parade, the Book Binders resolved unanimously, that an apron and badge be presented to Mr. Skinner, for the purpose of being transmitted to General La Fayette.

The Procession.—Watchmakers and Ship Carpenters.

Watch-Makers, Jewellers, Silver-Smiths and Engravers.—At the head of this association was Col. Standish Barry, as principal marshal. He was followed by Col. Peter Little, our representative in Congress, supported by Capt. John Lynch, and Mr. James Ninde. Then followed a banner used in the Procession of 1809, borne by Andrew E. Warner. The device was a figure of Time, with this inscription: "I transmit thee to posterity." Below this figure, on the right hand side, was seen a Gold Urn; on the left, one of Silver; in the centre of' the whole was seen a Clock; above the figure of Time was this inscription: Carried by Captain Thomas Warner in 1809." The banner was supported by it member from each branch, viz: James C. Ninde, front the Watch-Makers; George Webb, from the Jewellers; John N. Green, from the Silver-Smiths; and William Bannerman, from the Engravers. Next came an Octagonal Pyramid, borne on the shoulders of assistants, in the front of which was placed it splendid clock. Around the base, and on the second tier of the pyramid, were placed superb specimens of richly chased silver-ware, such as tea and coffee-pots, bowls, goblets, &c. all the production of the Silver-Smiths of Baltimore. On the upper tier were placed rich specimens of jewelry, its chains, seals, and a variety of valuable trinkets, so arranged as to display that branch of American manufacture to the best advantage. The pyramid was surmounted by a large silver urn, richly chased and burnished. This beautiful piece of workmanship weighed about 120 ounces, and we are pleased to say, was also made in Baltimore. The association followed in the following order: Watch-Makers, Jewellers, Silver-Smiths, Engravers. The sub-marshals were William G. Cook, Samuel Kirk, John M. Johannes, John Lynch and J. H. Warfield. The silver-ware was loaned for the occasion by the maker, Mr. Samuel Kirk; and the jewelry by Mr. Wm. G. Cook.

Glass Cutters.—This association, headed by Mr. Henry Tingle, numbered about fourteen members. Each of these bore in his hand a piece of Baltimore cut-glass, the beauty and richness of which elicited general admiration.

Ship Carpenters, Ship Joiners, Block and Pump Makers.—Messrs. Wm. Price and George Gardner, two of the oldest Shipwrights, rode in a barouche at the head of this body of artisans. Immediately after came the large and elegant banner, representing a ship on the stocks, ready for launching. Above was the American eagle with extended wings, bearing in it scroll the name of the ship, "Charles Carroll of Carrollton." Four platoons of Shipwrights with their assistant marshals followed; and after these, on a car drawn by six horses, an elegantly finished model representing the frame of a sixty-four gun ship, the Baltimore, decorated with flags. The remainder of the body brought up the rear. The members all wore blue sashes ornamented with the device of Noah's Ark, and the Railroad. The whole was under the conduct of marshals James Beacham, Samuel Trimble, William Gardner and James Price.

Boat-Builders.—On a stage drawn by two horses, was the model of a boat in frame, very handsomely finished; on her stern the name Ohio was inscribed. The dress of the members was uniformly a dark coat, white pantaloons and vest, and black cravat. The badge was formed by a white satin sash suspended from the neck, containing on one side a representation of the Railroad, &c., and on the other, portraits of Washington and Carroll of Carrollton, and the arms of the Union. Appended to the badge was the representation of a boat in frame, with this motto—"A ship afloat requires a boat."

The Procession—Rope-makers, Sea captains, Seamen, Etc.

Rope-makers..—In front of this trade was a stage drawn by four horses, upon which was an apparatus for making rope, and five or six hands employed in its manufacture, which was performed with much dexterity. Master workman, James Neale.

The Riggers, Sail-makers, and Pilots.—came next in order, the former distinguished by their white frocks. Chief marshal, Mr. John Jillard.

Ship-captains, Mates and Seamen.—This association of our fellow-citizens came next, preceded by the elegant "Ship Union," completely rigged and found for her voyage of discovery. Perhaps no single object in the whole of this novel and splendid procession, attracted more attention, or afforded greater satisfaction than this beautiful ship, with her sails set, colors flying, and crew bustling about at the orders of her officers, and the shrill whistle of her boatswain. The Union is about twenty-seven feet long, and six feet beam: her colors, as we have already mentioned, were of silk, and made for the occasion by the ladies of the Point. Besides these, the Union carried three flags with the following mottoes: at the fore, "Don't give up the ship;" at the main, "Free trade and sailor's rights;" at the mizen, "Success to the Railroad." Her crew was composed entirely of masters of vessels, (with the exception of the steward, a boy,) and were as follows: Timothy Gardner, master; Matthew Kelly, 1st officer; William H. Conckling, 2d officer; George F. De La Roche, 3d officer; Wm. Baartscheer, boatswain; William Phillips, Michael McDonald, John A. Conklin, Richard Edwards, James McCuire, Ray S. Clark, seamen; Edward Carrington, steward; E.W.R. Sink, pilot. The seamen were all dressed alike in proper costume, and the jolly dogs seemed so happy in their voyage, that the smiles of the ladies and the cheers of the men greeted them on all sides as they sailed along. After the ship came the Masters, Mates and Seamen on foot, and in their rear several carriages with aged Masters of the port.

At the commencement of the procession, when the venerable Carroll was passing along the line, and had come opposite to the ship Union, riding at anchor in front of this office, be was saluted on all hands with three hearty cheers. After he had passed, the following dialogue took place between Mr. Henry Thompson, aid to the Grand Marshal, and Captain Gardner of the Union, which was listened to with much interest by a large concourse of people. Aid.—Ship ahoy! Capt. G.—Hollo! Aid.—What is the name of that ship, and by whom commanded? Capt. G.—The Union, Captain Gardner. Aid.—From whence came you, and where bound? Capt. G.—From Baltimore, bound to the Ohio. Aid.—How will you get over the mountains? Capt. G.—We've engaged a passage by the Railroad. The question now came from the Ship.—What fleet is that ahead? Aid.—The Railroad Pioneers commanded by Admiral Carroll. Ship.—We'll try and overhaul them! Aid.—I wish you success—a good voyage to you. The Union was accordingly soon after got underway, and succeeded in overhauling the Pioneers on the Railroad ground.

The following Song was sung by the Crew of the Union whilst Charles Carroll of Carrollton was breaking ground:

TUNEHail to the Chief.

Hail to the road which triumphant commences,
Still closer to unite the East and the West;
Hail to the hope in our vision that glances,
With prosperous commerce again to be blest;
Cheer, loudly cheer, the patriot sage,
Who first of all tugs in spite of his age;
Then cheerily together our efforts uniting,
Let's help this great work in advancing.
O dear and glorious be the day,
Which causes all this grand display:
O long remember'd may it be,
Through Baltimore's prosperity.


The Procession—Draymen, Juvenile Associations.

Draymen.—This association was headed by Mr. John M'Allister, the oldest member. In front was a horse and dray—upon the latter a pipe, handsomely painted, upon each head of which was inscribed—"Commerce, the supporter of all nations." The American flag, displayed from a staff planted in front of the pipe, surmounted the whole. The members were all in their shirt sleeves, with white vests, aprons, and pantaloons; and each wore at his left breast, a beautiful blue silk badge, containing a representation of the Railroad, and the following inscriptions:— "The ceremony of breaking the ground, performed by the venerable Charles Carroll of Carrollton, in his 92d year—the only surviving Signer of the Declaration of Independence. In commemoration of laying the foundation stone of the Baltimore and Ohio Railroad, July 4, 1828."

Captain Walter's fine hand of music now followed, and then came the
Juvenile Associations, in the following order, under the conduct of Joseph Branson, chief marshal.

Jefferson Association.—L.C. M'Phail, principal marshal; deputy marshal and standard-bearers in white, with blue sashes and appropriate badges. Members seventy in number, with blue coats white vests and pantaloons, and blue sashes and appropriate badges. The first banner represented the Genius of Liberty, bearing in her hand a scroll on which was inscribed the works of Jefferson. viz.: The Declaration of Independence, Notes on Virginia &c. The whole festooned with the star spangled banner; motto, "Great and Glorious Day." The second banner represented the tomb of Jefferson, surrounded by wreaths of laurel and cypress.

Juvenile Jackson Association.—Distinguished by a banner with the title of the association, and containing the representation of two cornucopia, with this motto, "Industry the means, Plenty the result." David Lefevre, principal marshal. Standard-bearer and marshals in white, with blue sashes and badges emblematic of the Railroad. Members about seventy in number, dressed in blue coats, white vests and pantaloons. Two other handsome banners were borne in the ranks of this association.

Franklin Association.—William Kimmel, marshal; deputy marshals and standard-bearer, in white, with blue sashes and white badges containing likenesses of Benjamin Franklin and Charles Carroll of Carrollton. Upon the banner was a portrait of Benjamin Franklin; on the reverse, an eagle with a scroll, on which was inscribed—"Franklin Association, July 4, 1828." Members in black jackets, white pantaloons and blue sashes, about seventy in number.

Carrollton Association.—Thomas J. Brown, marshal; deputy marshals and standard-bearers in white, with white sashes, and badges bearing the likeness of Mr. Carroll. The members were sixty-five in number, dressed in black jackets, white pantaloons, blue sashes and Carrollton badges. On their banner was the name of "Carroll," surrounded by a wreath and rays of glory.

Schools.—Associated under the charge of Mr. Denboer, decorated with badges and breast-knots. They were distinguished by a banner on which were displayed the letters of the Alphabet, and this motto—

"Large streams from little fountains flow,
Tall oaks from little acorns grow."

Clinton Association.—J. R. Baxley, marshal; deputy marshals and standard bearers in white, with white sashes bearing the likeness of Carroll of Carrollton. Members, sixty in number, dressed in black jackets, white vests and pantaloons, and blue sashes. Their standard bore a wreath of cypress and laurel, surrounding the word "Gratitude." It was supported on one side by the secretary, bearing a spade, emblematic of Clinton's exertions in behalf of Canals, and on the other by the treasurer bearing the Declaration of Independence, printed on white satin.

Washington Association.—James Law, marshal. This association was composed of a large number of young men between the ages of eighteen and twenty-three years, dressed in blue coats, white vests and pantaloons, blue sashes decorated with white badges on which were the portraits of Washington and Carroll. On the principal banner was depicted the portrait of him who was "First in war, first in peace, and first in the hearts of his countrymen," surrounded by rays of glory. The other banner was that borne on the occasion of the visit of La Fayette, in 1824.

After the Juvenile Associations, came the Mayor and City Council, and the officers of the Corporation. To these succeeded citizens on horseback and in carriages, and Captain Kennedy's troop of horse closed this long and magnificent line of procession.

The Road commenced to Ellicott's Mills.

A few days after this stupendous and magnificent celebration, the line from the corner-stone to Ellicott's Mills, a distance of nearly fourteen miles, was put under contract, and immediately commenced. A portion of the road was ready for the rails in the ensuing October; and in twenty months from the organization of the company, an additional section, embracing that between Ellicott's Mills and the Forks of the Patapsco, some twelve miles, was placed under contract, making the whole line, thus far, over twenty-three miles in length.

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