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CHAPTER III.

INSPECTION OF THE LOCOMOTIVE.

LOCOMOTIVE INSPECTORS.
ON railroads where the system of “long runs” for locomotives prevails, there is a locomotive inspector employed, whose duty it is to thoroughly examine every available point about every engine that arrives at his station, and find out what repairs are needed, and to detect the incipient defects which lead to disaster on the road. Some roads that do not practice long runs have an inspector who examines every engine. This plan is very effectually used on the elevated railroads of New York, and has much to do with the immunity from accident of their engines. These inspectors are not employed to exempt engineers from looking over their engines, but merely to supplement their care. In some cases engineers are brought sharply to task if they overlook any important defect which is discovered by the inspector.

GOOD ENGINEERS INSPECT THEIR OWN ENGINES.
The engineer who has a liking for his work, and takes pride in making his engine perform its part, so as to show the highest possible record, does not require the fear of an inspector behind him as an incentive to properly examine his engine, and keep it in the best running-order. He recognizes the fact, that upon systematic and regular inspection of the engine while at rest, depends in a great measure his success as a runner and his exemption from trouble.

WHAT COMES OF NEGLECTING SYSTEMATIC INSPECTION OF LOCOMOTIVES.
The man who habitually neglects the business of inspecting his engine, and leaves to luck his chances of getting over the road safely, soon finds that the worst kind of luck is always overtaking him on the road. A careful man may have a run of bad luck occasionally, but the careless man meets with nothing else. Among great many men who have failed as runners, I can call numerous cases where carelessness about the engine was the only and direct cause which led them to failure. One of the most successful engineers that ever pulled a throttle on the Erie Railroad was asked by a young runner to what cause he attributed his extraordinary good fortune. His reply was, “I never went out without giving my engine a good inspection.” This man had been running nearly half a century, and never needed to have his engine hauled to the roundhouse.

CONFIDENCE ON THE ROAD DERIVED FROM INSPECTION.
When a locomotive is thundering over a road ahead a heavy train in which may be hundreds of human beings the engineer ought to understand that the this freight of lives depends to a great extent care and foresight. As the train rushes darkened cuttings, spans giddy bridges, or rounds curves edged by deep chasms, no one can understand better than the engineer the importance of having every nut and bolt about the engine in good condition, and in its proper place. The consciousness that every thing is right, the knowledge that a thorough inspection at the beginning of the journey proved the locomotive to be in perfect condition, give a wonderful degree of comfort and confidence to the engineer as he urges his train along at the best speed of the engine.

INSPECTION ON THE PIT.
Between the time of an engine’s return from one trip and its preparation for another, a thorough examination of all the machinery and running-gear should be made while the engine is standing over a pit. Monkey-wrench in one hand, and a torch in the other if necessary, the engineer ought to enter the pit at the bead of the engine, and make the inspection systematically. The engine-truck, with all its connections, comes in for the first scrutiny. Now is the time to guard against the loss of bolts or screws, which leads to the loss of oil-box cellars on the road. This is also the proper time to examine the condition of the oil-box packing. The engineers of my acquaintance who are most successful in getting trains over the road on time, attend to the packing of the truck-boxes themselves. Nothing is more annoying on the road than hot boxes. They are a fruitful source of delay and danger, and nothing is better calculated to prevent such troubles than good packing and clear oil-holes. The shop-men who are kept for attending to this work are sometimes careless. They can hardly be expected to feel so strongly impressed with the importance of having well packed as the engineer, who will be blamed any delay. He should, therefore, know from personal inspection that the work is properly done.

When the engineer is satisfied that the truck, pilot, braces, center-castings, and all their connections, are in proper condition, he passes on to the motion. His trained eye scans every bolt, nut, and key in search of The eccentrics are examined, to see that set and keys are all tight. Men who have wrestled over the setting of eccentrics on the road are not likely to forget this part. Eccentric-straps are another point of solicitude. A broken eccentric-strap is a very common cause of break-down, and these straps very seldom break through weakness or defect of the casting. In break all cases the break occurs through loss of bolts, or on account of oil-passages getting stopped up. The links are carefully gone over, then the wedges and pedestal braces come in for an examination which brings he assurance that no bolts are missing, or wedge-bolts loose. Passing along, the careful engineer finds many points that claim his attention; and, when be gets through he feels comfortably certain that no trouble from that part of the engine will be experienced during the coming trip. The runners who do not follow this are not aware of how much there is to be seen locomotive when the examination is undertaken in a comprehensive manner.

OUTSIDE INSPECTION.
In going round the outside of the engine, the most important points for examination are the guides and the rods. Guide-bolts rod-bolts, and keys, with the set screws of the latter, are the minutiae most likely to give trouble if neglected. In going about the engine oiling, or for any other purpose, it is a good thing to get in the habit of searching for defects. When a man trains himself to do this, it is surprising how natural it comes to make running inspections. As he oils the eccentric straps, he sees every bolt and nut within sight; as he drops some oil on the rods, he identifies the condition of the keys, set screws, or bolts; while oiling the driving-boxes, the springs can be conveniently examined; and, when he reaches the engine-trucks with the oil-can, he is sure to be casting, his searching eyes over the portions of the running-gear within sight.

OIL-CUPS.
The oil-cups should be carefully examined, to see that they are in good feeding-order. A great many feeders have been invented, which guarantee to supply oil automatically; but I have never yet seen the cup which could long dispense with personal attention. And this does not apply to locomotives alone, but to all kinds of machinery. The worst sort of oil-cup will perform its functions fairly in the hands of a capable man, and the most pretentious cup will soon cease to lubricate regularly if the engineer neglects it. The oil-cups should be cleaned out at regular intervals: for mud, cinders, and dust work in; and they sometimes retain glutinous matter from the oil, which forms a sticky mixture that prevents the oil from running. The eccentric-strap cups and the tops of the driving-boxes should receive similar attention.

In looking round an engine, it is a good plan to watch different oil-cups to see that they are not working loose. Many cups that are strewed over the country be saved by a little more attention. A cup flying off a rod when an engine is running fast becomes a dangerous projectile. I have known several cases where cups went back through the cab-window. I have also seen several cases where cups worked off the guides or cross-head, and got between the guides, doing serious damage. One instance was that of an engine out on the trial-trip. It smashed the cross-head to pieces, and let the piston through the cylinder head.

INSPECTION OF RUNNING-GEAR.
A sharp tap with a hammer on the tread of the cast-iron wheel will produce a clear, ringing sound if the wheel is in good order. The drivers can generally be effectively inspected by the eye. If oil be observed working out between the wheel and axle, attention is demanded; for the wheel may be getting loose. Moisture and dirt issuing from between the tire and wheel indicate that the former is becoming loose, and this is a common occurrence when the tires are worn thin. When a wheel is running so that the flange is cutting itself on the rail, something is wrong, which also demands immediate attention. Oblique travel of wheels may be produced by various causes. If the axles of the driving-wheels are not secured at right angles to the frames, and parallel with each other, the wheels will run tangentially to the track, according to the inclination of the axles. Violent strains or concussions, such as result from engines jumping the track about switches sometimes spring the frames, and twist- the axle-box jaws away from their true position enough to cause cutting of flanges without disabling the engine. Tires wearing unevenly in consequence of one being harder than the other, produce a similar effect. Where there are movable wedges forward and aft of the boxes, the wheels are often thrown out of square by unskillful manipulation of these wedges. Engineers running engines of this kind should leave the forward wedges alone. Sometimes the center-pin of the engine-truck gets moved from the true central position, leading the drivers towards the ditch. Diagnosing the cause of wheel-cutting is no simple matter, and it is a wise plan for engineers to allow the shop-men to devise a remedy.

ATTENTIONS TO THE BOILER.
On our well-regulated roads, engineers are not required to inspect their boilers; as expert boiler-makers, who can readily detect a broken stay-bolt, or broken brace, have to make periodical examinations. But a prudent engineer will keep a sharp lookout for indications that show weak points about any part of the boiler or fire-box. This department can not receive too much vigilance. A seam or stay-bolt leaking is a sign of distress, and should receive immediate attention. Leaks under the jacket should never be neglected, although they are hard to reach; for they may proceed from the beginning of a dangerous rupture. A leak starting in the boiler-head should make the engineer ascertain that none of the longitudinal braces have broken. I once had some rivet-heads on my boiler-head start leaking, and presently the water-glass broke. After shutting off the cocks, I found that the boiler head was bulged out. I reduced the pressure on the boiler as quickly as possible. When the boiler was inspected, it was found that two of the longitudinal braces were broken, and the head-sheet was bent out two inches.

MISCELLANEOUS ATTENTIONS.
If an engineer is going to take out an engine the first time after it has been in the shop for repairs, it is a good plan to examine the tank to see if the workmen have left it free from bagging, greasy waste, and other impediments, which are not conducive to the free action of pumps or injectors. Keeping the tank clean at all times saves no end of trouble through derangement to feeding-apparatus. The smoke-box door should be opened regularly, and the petticoat-pipe and cone examined. These things wear out by use, and it is better to have them renewed or repaired before they break down on the road. A cone dropping down through failure of the braces makes a troublesome accident on the road. I have known of several cabs being badly damaged by fire through the cone dropping down, and closing up the stack. Where engines have extended smoke-boxes, the nettings and deflectors must be inspected at frequent intervals.

REWARD OF THOROUGH INSPECTION.
To go over an engine in the manner indicated, requires perseverance and industry. The work will, however, bring its full reward to every man who practices the care and watchfulness entailed by regular and systematic inspection. It is the sure road to success. He who regards his work from a higher plane than that of mere labor well done, will experience satisfaction from the knowledge, that, understanding the nobility of his duties, he performed them with the vigor and intelligence worthy of his responsible calling.


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